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Answers to Chapter 08 & 09 Study Questions

    1. 6
    2. 1
    3. 3 (two s electrons and one p electron)

 

  1. in order of increasing electronegativity: \(\mathrm{Ge < C < O}\)

 

    1. \(\ce{Li+}\)
    2. \(\ce{Na+}\)
    3. \(\ce{F}\)

 

    1. \(\ce{O^2-}\), \(\ce{F-}\), \(\ce{Na+}\), \(\ce{Mg^2+}\), \(\ce{Al^3+}\)
    2. \(\ce{S^2-}\), \(\ce{Cl-}\), \(\ce{K+}\), \(\ce{Ca^2+}\), \(\ce{Sc^3+}\)
    3. \(\ce{I-}\), \(\ce{Cs+}\), \(\ce{Ba^2+}\)

 

  1. isoelectronic

 


    1. 6a.png
       

    2. 6b.png
       

    3. 6c.png
       

    4. 6d.png
       

    5. 6e.png
       

    6. 6f.png
             
    7. \(\ce{P2Cl2}\)
      6g.png
       
    8. \(\ce{N2O4}\)
      6h.png
                                  

    9. 6i.png
                   

    10. 6j 1.png      or    6j 2.png

 

    1. bent, polar
    2. linear, nonpolar
    3. trigonal pyramid, polar
    4. tetrahedral, polar

 

  1.  

       8 1.png  or   8 2.png

 

  1. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between two atoms (usually nonmetals).  The orbitals of bonding electrons overlap so that the bonding electrons spend more time between the 2 atoms.  A bond is polar when one of the atoms is more electronegative than the other atom.  A molecule is polar when the overall molecule has a net dipole moment, that is, electrons spend more time on one side of the molecule than the other.

 

  1. Chemical properties are shared within a Group but not within a Period.  Group number is a good predictor of chemical properties; Period number is not.

 

    1. \(\mathrm{C - F}\)
    2. \(\mathrm{Si - F}\)

 

    1. see-saw
    2. square planar
    3. trigonal bipyramid
    4. octahedral

 

    1. sp3
    2. sp
    3. sp3d2
    4. sp3d
    5. sp2
    6. sp2

 

    1. 4 sigma bonds
    2. 3 sigma bonds, 1 pi bond
    3. 2 sigma bonds, 2 pi bonds
    4. 9 sigma bonds, 1 pi bond