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Chemistry LibreTexts

Answers to Chapter 08 & 09 Study Questions

1. 

  1. 6                       
  2. 1                
  3. 3 (two s electrons and one p electron)

 

2.  in order of increasing electronegativity: Ge < C < O

 

3. 

  1. Li+                    
  2. Na+                       
  3. F

 

4. 

  1. O2-, F-, Na+, Mg2+, Al3+   
  2. S2-, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Sc3+                 
  3. I-, Cs+, Ba2+

 

5.  isoelectronic

 

6. 


  1. 6a.png
     

  2. 6b.png
     

  3. 6c.png
     

  4. 6d.png
     

  5. 6e.png
     

  6. 6f.png
           
  7. P2Cl2
    6g.png
     
  8. N2O4
    6h.png
                                

  9. 6i.png
                 

  10. 6j 1.png      or    6j 2.png

 

7. 

  1. bent, polar        
  2. linear, nonpolar     
  3. trigonal pyramid, polar      
  4. tetrahedral, polar

 

8.

8 1.png  or   8 2.png

 

9.  Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between two atoms (usually nonmetals).  The orbitals of bonding electrons overlap so that the bonding electrons spend more time between the 2 atoms.  A bond is polar when one of the atoms is more electronegative than the other atom.  A molecule is polar when the overall molecule has a net dipole moment, that is, electrons spend more time on one side of the molecule than the other.

 

10.  Chemical properties are shared within a Group but not within a Period.  Group number is a good predictor of chemical properties; Period number is not.

 

11. 

  1. C - F                          
  2. Si - F

 

12. 

  1. see-saw           
  2. square planar         
  3. trigonal bipyramid             
  4. octahedral

 

13. 

  1. sp3         
  2. sp                       
  3. sp3d2          
  4. sp3d            
  5. sp2                   
  6. sp2

 

14. 

  1. 4 sigma bonds                                    
  2. 3 sigma bonds, 1 pi bond
  3. 2 sigma bonds, 2 pi bonds                  
  4. 9 sigma bonds, 1 pi bond