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- Molecular formula: C4H8O3
- Molar mass: 104.105
- CAS Registry Number: 591-81-1
- Appearance: Not available
- Melting point: Not available
- Boiling point: Not available
- Solubility: Not available
- Safety sheet: Not available
- Spectra: Check on SDBS. Add Spectra (Help).
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug. It is a precursor to GABA, glutamate, and glycine in certain brain areas, and it acts on the GHB receptor and it is a weak agonist at the GABAB receptor.
GHB has been used in a medical setting as a general anesthetic and as a treatment for cataplexy, narcolepsy and alcoholism. It is also used illegally as an intoxicant, to try to increase athletic performance, and as a date rape drug.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is a disease that causes GHB to accumulate in the blood.
Sodium oxybate (USAN) (brand names Xyrem, Alcover, Anetamin, Gamanest, Gioron, Somsanit), contracted from sodium γ-hydroxybutyrate, is a prescription medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy, and by the FDA, Health Canada and in some areas of the United Kingdom National Health Service for the treatment of cataplexy associated with narcolepsy. Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). Xyrem is manufactured by Jazz Pharmaceuticals in the US and Valeant Pharmaceuticals in Canada. Under the name Alcover, it is used in Italy for treatment of alcohol withdrawal and dependence.
4-Hydroxybutanoic acid (IUPAC Name); 4-hydroxy-butanoic acid; 4-hydroxybutyric acid; 4-Hydroxy-butyric acid; GHB