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Amino acid biosynthesis

  • Page ID
    943
  • [ "article:topic", "Lower Division", "Organic", "brenda", "Author tag:Soderberg", "authorname:soderberg", "authorname:soderbergt", "showtoc:no" ]

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    Sections/problems listed with an asterisk (*) do not discuss the exact reaction indicated, but do discuss a closely related reaction.

     

    Alanine (from pyruvate)

     

    Aspartate (from oxaloacetate):

     

    Glutamate (from alpha-ketoglutarate)

     

    Glutamine (from glutamate)

     

    Asparagine (from aspartate)

     

    Arginine (from glutamate via ornithine, urea cycle)

    to arginine via urea cycle:

     

    Proline (from glutamate)

     

    Serine (from 3-phosphoglycerate)

     

    Cysteine (from serine)

    or, in bacteria:

     

    Glycine (from serine)

     

    Lysine (from aspartate)

     

    Methionine (from aspartate via homoserine)

     

    Threonine (from homoserine)

     

    Isoleucine, leucine, and valine (from pyruvate):

    to isoleucine:

    • Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.42) Section 14.4E*

    to valine:

    • Valine—pyruvate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.66) Section 14.4E*

    to leucine:

    • 2-isopropylmalate synthase (EC 2.3.3.13) Section 13.3*
    • Isopropylmalate isomerase (EC 4.2.1.33) P14.7
    • 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.85) Section 16.4*
    • Leucine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.6) Section 14.4E*

     

    Aromatic amino acids

    Erythrose-4-phosphate to chorismate:

    • DAHP synthase (EC 2.5.1.54) Section 15.2C
    • Dehydroquinate synthase (EC 4.2.3.4) C13.1, 14.1A
    • Dehydroquinate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.10) Section 14.1D
    • Shikimate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.25) Section 16.4*
    • Shikimate kinase (EC 2.7.1.71) P10.2 Section 10.2*
    • 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.19) Section 14.3B, Section 15.4
    • Chorismate synthase (EC 4.2.3.5) Section 14.3B, Section 17.3C

    chorismate to tryptophan:

    • Anthranilate synthase (EC 4.1.3.27) P14.8a
    • Anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.18) Section 11.5*
    • Phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.24) P11.12, P13.12
    • Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (EC 4.1.1.48) Section 15.5B
    • Tryptophan synthase (EC 4.2.1.20) Section 13.3C, E13.7, Section 15.5B

    chorismate to phenylalanine/tyrosine:

    • Chorismate mutase (EC 5.4.99.5) Section 15.10
    • Prephenate decarboxylase (EC 4.2.1.51) Section 14.3B
    • Aromatic-amino-acid aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.57) Section 14.4E*
    • Tyrosine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.5) Section 14.4E*

     

    Histidine

    • ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.17)  Section 11.5*
    • Phosphoribosyl-ATP diphosphatase (EC 3..6.1.31) Section 10.3*
    • Phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.19) P12.12
    • 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-5-[(5-phosphoribosylamino)methylideneamino]imidazole-4-carboxamide isomerase (EC 5.3.1.16) P14.8b
    • Imidazole glycerol-phosphate synthase (no EC number assigned) Section 11.6*, C11.1
    • Imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase (4.2.1.19) Section 14.3B
    • Histidinol-phosphate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.9) Section 14.4E*
    • Histidinol-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.15) Section 10.3*
    • Histidinol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.23) Section 16.4D*

     

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