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4: Covalent Bonding and Simple Molecular Compounds

Ionic bonding results from the transfer of electrons among atoms or groups of atoms. In this chapter, we will consider another type of bonding—covalent bonding. We will examine how atoms share electrons to form these bonds, and we will begin to explore how the resulting compounds, such as cholesterol, are different from ionic compounds.

  • 4.1: Covalent Bonds
    You have already seen examples of substances that contain covalent bonds. One substance mentioned previously was water (H₂O). You can tell from its formula that it is not an ionic compound; it is not composed of a metal and a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those of ionic compounds. A covalent bond is formed between two atoms by sharing electrons.
  • 4.2: Covalent Compounds: Formulas and Names
    The chemical formula of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its name. The name of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its chemical formula.
  • 4.3: Multiple Covalent Bonds
    Some molecules must have multiple covalent bonds between atoms to satisfy the octet rule.
  • 4.4: Characteristics of Covalent Bonds
    Covalent bonds between different atoms have different bond lengths. Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar, depending on the electronegativity difference between the atoms involved.
  • 4.5: Characteristics of Molecules
    A molecule has a certain mass, called the molecular mass. Simple molecules have geometries that can be determined from VSEPR theory.
  • 4.6: Organic Chemistry
    Organic chemistry is the study of the chemistry of carbon compounds. Organic molecules can be classified according to the types of elements and bonds in the molecules.
  • 4.E: Covalent Bonding and Simple Molecular Compounds (Exercises)
    These are homework exercises to accompany Chapter 4 of the Ball et al. "The Basics of GOB Chemistry" Textmap.
  • 4.S: Covalent Bonding and Simple Molecular Compounds (Summary)
    To ensure that you understand the material in this chapter, you should review the meanings of the following bold terms in the following summary and ask yourself how they relate to the topics in the chapter.