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Chemistry LibreTexts

9: Solutions

Solutions are all around us. Air, for example, is a solution. If you live near a lake, a river, or an ocean, that body of water is not pure H2O but most probably a solution. Much of what we drink—for example, soda, coffee, tea, and milk—is at least in part a solution. Solutions are a large part of everyday life. A lot of the chemistry occurring around us happens in solution. In fact, much of the chemistry that occurs in our own bodies takes place in solution, and many solutions—such as the Ringer’s lactate IV solution—are important for our health. In our understanding of chemistry, we need to understand a little bit about solutions. In this chapter, you will learn about the special characteristics of solutions, how solutions are characterized, and some of their properties.

  • 9.1: Solutions
    Solutions form because a solute and a solvent experience similar intermolecular interactions.
  • 9.2: Concentration
    Various concentration units are used to express the amounts of solute in a solution. Concentration units can be used as conversion factors in stoichiometry problems. New concentrations can be easily calculated if a solution is diluted.
  • 9.3: The Dissolution Process
    When a solute dissolves, its individual particles are surrounded by solvent molecules and are separated from each other.
  • 9.4: Properties of Solutions
    Certain properties of solutions differ from those of pure solvents in predictable ways.
  • 9.E: Solutions (Exercises)
    Problems and select solutions to this chapter.
  • 9.S: Solutions (Summary)
    To ensure that you understand the material in this chapter, you should review the meanings of the bold terms in the following summary and ask yourself how they relate to the topics in the chapter.