Many vital chemical and physical processes take place exclusively in aqueous solution, including the complex biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms and the reactions that rust and corrode steel objects, such as bridges, ships, and automobiles. Among the most important reactions in aqueous solution are those that can be categorized as acid–base, precipitation, and complexation reactions. So far, our discussions of these reactions have been largely qualitative. In this chapter, we take a more quantitative approach to understanding such reactions, using the concept of chemical equilibrium that we developed for simple gas-phase reactions. We will begin by revisiting acid–base reactions in a qualitative fashion and then develop quantitative methods to describe acid–base equilibriums. We will use the same approach to describe the equilibriums involved in the dissolution of sparingly soluble solids and the formation of metal complexes.
Indicators are used to monitor changes in pH. The pH of a solution can be monitored using an acid–base indicator, a substance that undergoes a color change within a specific pH range that is characteristic of that indicator. The color changes for seven commonly used indicators over a pH range of 1–10 are shown below.
Red cabbage (anthocyanin dye) extract at low pH (left) to high pH (right). Anthocyanins are found in the cell vacuole, mostly in flowers and fruits but also in leaves, stems, and roots. In these parts, they are found predominantly in outer cell layers such as the epidermis and peripheral mesophyll cells. Image used with permission from Wikipedia (credit:
Previously, we described how acid rain can adversely affect the survival of marine life and plant growth. Many significant phenomena, such as acid rain, can be understood only in terms of the acid–base behavior of chemical species. As we expand our discussion of acid–base behavior in this chapter, you will learn why lemon slices are served with fish, why the strengths of acids and bases can vary over many orders of magnitude, and why rhubarb leaves are toxic to humans. You will also understand how the pH of your blood is kept constant, even though you produce large amounts of acid when you exercise.