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10.15: Saturated and Supersaturated Solutions

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    We often find that there is a limit to the quantity of solute which will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent. This is especially true when solids dissolve in liquids. For example, if 36 g KCl crystals is shaken with 100 g H2O at 25°C only 35.5 g of the solid dissolves. If we raise the temperature somewhat, all the KCl will dissolve, but on cooling to 25°C again, the extra 0.5 g KC1 will precipitate, leaving exactly 35.5 g of the salt dissolved. We describe this phenomenon by saying that at 25°C the solubility of KCl in H2O is 35.5 g KC1 per 100 g H2O. A solution of this composition is also described as a saturated solution since it can accommodate no more KCl.

    Under some circumstances it is possible to prepare a solution which behaves anomalously and contains more solute than a saturated solution. Such a solution is said to be supersaturated. A good example of supersaturation is provided by Na2S2O3, sodium thiosulfate, whose solubility at 25°C is 50 g Na2S2O3 per 100 g H2O. If 70 g Na2S2O3 crystals is dissolved in 100 g hot H2O and the solution cooled to room temperature, the extra 20 g Na2S2O3 usually does not precipitate. The resulting solution is supersaturated; consequently it is also unstable. It can be “seeded” by adding a crystal of Na2S2O3, whereupon the excess salt suddenly crystallizes and heat is given off. After the crystals have settled and the temperature has returned to 25°C, the solution above the crystals is a saturated solution—it contains 50 g Na2S2O3.

    Another example of crystallizing salt out of a supersaturated solution can be seen in the following video. In this case, a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate is poured over a crystal of sodium acetate. These crystals provide the lattice structure "seed" which causes the sodium acetate ions in solution to crystallize out.

    The salt begins to crystallize, forming a large sodium acetate structure from the precipitation of the ions out of solution. When the sodium acetate crystallizes, the oppositely charged ions are brought closer together by the crystal structure. Since formation of a crystal lattice lowers potential energy by placing like charges close together, the system releases the excess energy in the crystallization process. Thus, the structure ends up being warm to the touch from this excess energy.