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3: Chemical Reactions

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    215768
  • Balancing Combustion Reactions

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Balance the equation for the combustion of propane C3H8.

    a. \(\ce{C3H8 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O}\)

    b. \(\ce{C3H8 + 5O2 -> 3CO2 + 4H2O}\)

    c. \(\ce{CO2 + H2O -> C3H8 + O2}\)

    d. \(\ce{2C3H8 + 8O2 -> 6CO2 + 5H2O}\)

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{C3H8 + 5O2 -> 3CO2 + 4H2O}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Balance the equation for the combustion of butane C4H10

    a. \(\ce{C4H10 + O2 -> 4CO2 + 5H2O}\)

    b. \(\ce{C4H10 + 5O2 -> 4CO2 + 5H2O}\)

    c. \(\ce{C4H10 + 7O2 -> 5CO2 + 8H2O}\)

    d. \(\ce{2C4H10 + 13O2 -> 8CO2 + 10H2O}\)

    Answer

    d. \(\ce{2C4H10 + 13O2 -> 8CO2 + 10H2O}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Balance the equation for the combustion of hydrogen.

    a. \(\ce{H2 + O2 -> H2O}\)

    b. \(\ce{H2 + O -> H2O}\)

    c. \(\ce{2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O}\)

    d. There is no carbon so this does not combust.

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Balance the equation for the combustion of magnesium.

    a. \(\ce{Mg + O -> MgO}\)

    b. \(\ce{Mg + O2 -> MgO2}\)

    c. \(\ce{2Mg + O2 -> 2MgO}\)

    d. Magnesium will not combust.

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{2Mg + O2 -> 2MgO}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Balance the equation for the combustion of ethanol (CH3CH2OH - drinking alcohol).

    a. \(\ce{CH3CH2OH + 3O2 -> 2CO2 + 3H2O}\)

    b. \(\ce{2CH3CH2OH + 13O2 -> 4CO2 + 6H2O}\)

    c. \(\ce{CH3CH2OH + O2 -> CO2 + H2O}\)

    d. \(\ce{3CH3CH2OH + 9O2 -> 6CO2 + 12H2O}\)

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{CH3CH2OH + 3O2 -> 2CO2 + 3H2O}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Balance the equation for the combustion of isopropyl alcohol - (CH3)2CHOH - rubbing alcohol.

    a. \(\ce{(CH3)2CHOH + O2 -> 2CO2 + 3H2O}\)

    b. \(\ce{2(CH3)2CHOH + 9O2 -> 6CO2 + 8H2O}\)

    c. \(\ce{CH3CH2OH + O2 -> 2CO2 + 3H2O}\)

    d. \(\ce{3CH3CH2OH + 4O2 -> 3CO2 + 2H2O}\)

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{2(CH3)2CHOH + 9O2 -> 6CO2 + 8H2O}\)

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    Balancing Equations - Double Displacement Reactions

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Potassium carbonate reacts with lead(II) nitrate to form lead(II) carbonate and potassium nitrate. What is the stoichiometric coefficient in front of the lead(II) nitrate for the balanced equation?

    a. 1

    b. 2

    c. 3

    d. 4

    Answer

    a. 1

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Aluminum chloride reacts with silver sulfate to form aluminum sulfate and silver chloride. What is the stoichiometric coefficient in front of the silver chloride for the balanced equation?

    a. 2

    b. 3

    c. 4

    d. 6

    Answer

    d. 6

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Manganese(II)sulfate reacts with sodium phosphate to produce manganese(II)phosphate and sodium sulfate. What is the stoichiometric coefficient in front of the sodium sulfate for the balanced equation?

    a. 1

    b. 2

    c. 3

    d. 4

    Answer

    c. 3

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Sulfuric Acid reacts with Ammonium hydroxide to produce Ammonium sulfate and water. What is the stoichiometric coefficient in front of the water for the balanced equation?

    a. 1

    b. 2

    c. 3

    d. 4

    Answer

    b. 2

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Iron(III)chloride reacts with lead(IV)sulfate to produce Iron(III)sulfate and lead(IV)chloride. What is the stoichiometric coefficient in front of the Iron(III)chloride for the balanced equation?

    a. 1

    b. 2

    c. 3

    d. 4

    Answer

    d. 4

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    Acid Base Neutralization Reactions

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the general (molecular) equation for the reaction between potassium hydroxide and perchloric acid.

    a. \(\ce{KOH(aq) + HClO4(aq) -> KClO4(aq) + H2O(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{KOH(aq) + HClO4(aq) -> KClO4(aq) + H2O(l)}\)

    c. \(\ce{KOH(aq) + HClO4(aq) -> KClO3(aq) + H2O(l)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{KOH(aq) + HClO4(aq) -> KClO4(aq) + H2O(l)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the ionic equation for the reaction between potassium hydroxide and perchloric acid.

    a. H+ + OH- \(\ce{->}\) H2O(l)

    b. H+ + ClO4- + K+ + OH- --> K+ + ClO4- + H2O(l)

    c. H+ + Cl- + K+ + OH- --> K+ + Cl- + H2O(l)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. H+ + ClO4- + K+ + OH- --> K+ + ClO4- + H2O(l)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the net ionic equation for the reaction between potassium hydroxide and perchloric acid.

    a. H+ + OH- --> H2O(l)

    b. H+ + ClO4- + K+ + OH- --> K+ + ClO4- + H2O(l)

    c. H+ + Cl- + K+ + OH- --> K+ + Cl- + H2O(l)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. H+ + OH- --> H2O(l)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the general (molecular) equation for the reacton of ammonia with perchloric acid.

    a. \(\ce{NH3(aq) + HClO4(aq) -> NH4ClO4(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{NH3OH(aq) + HClO4(aq) -> NH4ClO4(aq) + H2O(l)}\)

    c. \(\ce{NH3OH(aq) + HClO4(aq) -> NH4ClO4(aq) + H2O(aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. \(\ce{NH3(aq) + HClO4(aq) -> NH4ClO4(aq)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the ionic equation for the reacton of ammonia with perchloric acid.

    a. NH3(aq) + H+ + ClO4- --> NH4+ + ClO4- + H2O(l)

    b. NH3(aq) + H+ + ClO4- --> NH4+ + ClO4- + H2O(aq)

    c. NH3(aq) + H+ + ClO4- --> NH4+ + ClO4-

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. NH3(aq) + H+ + ClO4- --> NH4+ + ClO4-

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the net ionic equation for the reacton of ammonia with perchloric acid.

    a. NH3(aq) + H+ --> NH4+

    b. NH3(aq) + H+ + ClO4- --> NH4+ + ClO4-

    c. NH3(aq) + H+ + ClO4- --> NH4+ + ClO4- + H2O

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. NH3(aq) + H+ --> NH4+

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the general (molecular) equation for the reaction between potassium hydroxide and hypochlorous acid.

    a. \(\ce{KOH(aq) + HClO(aq) -> KClO(s) + H2O(l)}\)

    b. \(\ce{KOH(aq) + HClO(aq) -> KClO(aq) + H2O(aq)}\)

    c. \(\ce{KOH(aq) + HClO(aq) -> KClO(aq) + H2O(l)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{KOH(aq) + HClO(aq) -> KClO(aq) + H2O(l)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the ionic equation for the reaction between potassium hydroxide and hypochlorous acid.

    a. K+ + OH- + HClO(aq) --> K+ + ClO- + H2O(l)

    b. OH- + HClO(aq) --> ClO- + H2O(l)

    c. K+ + OH- + HClO(aq) --> K+ + ClO-

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. K+ + OH- + HClO(aq) --> K+ + ClO- + H2O(l)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the net ionic equation for the reaction between potassium hydroxide and hypochlorous acid.

    a. H+ + OH- --> H2O(l)

    b. K+ + OH- + HClO(aq) --> K+ + ClO- + H2O(l)

    c. OH- + HClO(aq) --> + ClO- + H2O(l)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. OH- + HClO(aq) --> + ClO- + H2O(l)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the general (molecular) equation for the reaction between ammonia and hypochlorous acid

    a. \(\ce{NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) -> NH4ClO(a)}\)

    b. \(\ce{NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) -> NH4ClO(aq)}\)

    c. \(\ce{NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) -> NH4ClO(aq) + H2O}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) -> NH4ClO(aq)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the ionic equation for the reaction between ammonia and hypochlorous acid

    a. NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) --> NH4ClO(aq)

    b. NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) --> NH4+ + ClO-

    c. NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) --> NH4+ + ClO- + H2O

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) --> NH4+ + ClO-

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the net ionic equation for the reaction between ammonia and hypochlorous acid

    a. NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) --> NH4+ + ClO-

    b. NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) --> NH4+ + ClO- + H2O

    c. NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) --> NH4+ + ClO- + H2O

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. NH3(aq) + HClO(aq) --> NH4+ + ClO-

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the general (molecular) equation for the reaction of barium hydroxide with sulfuric acid

    a. \(\ce{Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) -> BaSO4(s) + H2O(l)}\)

    b. \(\ce{Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) -> BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)}\)

    c. \(\ce{Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) -> BaSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) -> BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the ionic equation for the reaction of barium hydroxide with sulfuric acid

    a. H+ + OH- --> H2O(l)

    b. Ba+2 + 2OH- + 2H+ +SO4-2 --> Ba + SO4-2 + 2H2O(l)

    c. Ba+2 + 2OH- + 2H+ +SO4-2 --> BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. Ba+2 + 2OH- + 2H+ +SO4-2 --> BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the net ionic equation for the reaction of barium hydroxide with sulfuric acid

    a. H+ + OH- --> H2O(l)

    b. Ba+2 + 2OH- + 2H+ +SO4-2 --> Ba + SO4-2 + 2H2O(l)

    c. Ba+2 + 2OH- + 2H+ +SO4-2 --> BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. Ba+2 + 2OH- + 2H+ +SO4-2 --> BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

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    Solubility

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{Na2S(aq) + CuCl2(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{Na2S(aq) + CuCl2(aq) -> CuS(s) + 2NaCl(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{Na2S(aq) + CuCl2(aq) -> CuS(aq) + 2NaCl(s)}\)

    c. \(\ce{Na2S(aq) + CuCl2(aq) -> CuS(s) + NaCl(aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. \(\ce{Na2S(aq) + CuCl2(aq) -> CuS(s) + 2NaCl(aq)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{(NH4)2CO3(aq) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{(NH4)2CO3(aq) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) -> NH4(NO3)2(aq) + 2ZnCO3 (s)}\)

    b. \(\ce{(NH4)2CO3(aq) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) -> 2NH4NO3(aq) + ZnCO3 (s)}\)

    c. \(\ce{(NH4)2CO3(aq) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) -> 2NH4NO3(s) + ZnCO3 (aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{(NH4)2CO3(aq) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) -> 2NH4NO3(aq) + ZnCO3 (s)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{LiPO4(aq) + AgNO3(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{LiPO4(aq) + 3AgNO3(aq) -> Ag3PO4(aq) +3LiNO3(s)}\)

    b. \(\ce{LiPO4(aq) + AgNO3(aq) -> Ag3PO4(aq) +LiNO3(s)}\)

    c. \(\ce{LiPO4(aq) + 3AgNO3(aq) -> Ag3PO4(s) +3LiNO3(aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{LiPO4(aq) + 3AgNO3(aq) -> Ag3PO4(s) +3LiNO3(aq)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + NaI(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + NaI(aq) -> Na2SO4(s) + 2NH4I(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + 2NaI(aq) -> Na2SO4(aq) + 2NH4I(aq)}\)

    c. \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + NaI(aq) -> Na2SO4(aq) + 2NH4I(s)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + 2NaI(aq) -> Na2SO4(aq) + 2NH4I(aq)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{H2SO4(aq) + BaBr2(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{H2SO4(aq) + BaBr2(aq) -> 2HBr(s) + BaSO4(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{H2SO4(aq) + BaBr2(aq) -> 2HBr(aq) + BaSO4(aq)}\)

    c. \(\ce{H2SO4(aq) + BaBr2(aq) -> 2HBr(aq) + BaSO4(s)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{H2SO4(aq) + BaBr2(aq) -> 2HBr(aq) + BaSO4(s)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{BiCl3(aq) + NaOH(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{BiCl3(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) -> Bi(OH)3(s) + 3NaCl(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{BiCl3(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) -> Bi(OH)3(aq) + 3NaCl(aq)}\)

    c. \(\ce{BiCl3(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) -> Bi(OH)3(aq) + 3NaCl(s)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. \(\ce{BiCl3(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) -> Bi(OH)3(s) + 3NaCl(aq)}\)

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    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{K2S(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{K2S(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> CaS(aq) + 2KCl(s)}\)

    b. \(\ce{K2S(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> CaS(s) + 2KCl(aq)}\)

    c. \(\ce{K2S(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> CaS(aq) + 2KCl(aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{K2S(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> CaS(s) + 2KCl(aq)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{NaOH(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{2NaOH(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) -> Na2C2O4(aq) + 2H2O}\)

    b. \(\ce{2NaOH(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) -> Na2C2O4(s) + 2H2O}\)

    c. \(\ce{2NaOH(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) -> 2Na2C2O4(aq) + 2H2O}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. \(\ce{2NaOH(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) -> Na2C2O4(aq) + 2H2O}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{HCl(aq) + KC2H3O2(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{HCl(aq) + KC2H3O2(aq) -> KCl(s) + HC2H3O2(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{HCl(aq) + KC2H3O2(aq) -> KCl(aq) + HC2H3O2(s)}\)

    c. \(\ce{HCl(aq) + KC2H3O2(aq) -> KCl(aq) + HC2H3O2(aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{HCl(aq) + KC2H3O2(aq) -> KCl(aq) + HC2H3O2(aq)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{KOH(aq) + FeBr3(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{3KOH(aq) + FeBr3(aq) -> 3KBr(aq) + Fe(OH)3(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{3KOH(aq) + FeBr3(aq) -> 3KBr(aq) + Fe(OH)3(s)}\)

    c. \(\ce{3KOH(aq) + FeBr3(aq) -> 3KBr(s) + Fe(OH)3(aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{3KOH(aq) + FeBr3(aq) -> 3KBr(aq) + Fe(OH)3(s)}\)

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    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + NaI(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + 2NaI(aq) -> Na2SO4(s) + 2NH4I(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + 2NaI(aq) -> Na2SO4(aq) + 2NH4I(s)}\)

    c. \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + 2NaI(aq) -> Na2SO4(aq) + 2NH4I(aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{(NH4)2SO4(aq) + 2NaI(aq) -> Na2SO4(aq) + 2NH4I(aq)}\)

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    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{Be(NO3)2(aq) + KOH(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{Be(NO3)2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) -> 2KNO3(s) + Be(OH)2(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{Be(NO3)2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) -> 2KNO3(aq) + Be(OH)2(s)}\)

    c. \(\ce{Be(NO3)2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) -> 2KNO3(aq) + Be(OH)2(aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{Be(NO3)2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) -> 2KNO3(aq) + Be(OH)2(s)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{Zn(C2H3O2)2(aq) + KNO3(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{Zn(C2H3O2)2(aq) + 2KNO3(aq) -> Zn(NO3)2(aq) + 2KC2H3O2(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{Zn(C2H3O2)2(aq) + 2KNO3(aq) -> Zn(NO3)2(s) + 2KC2H3O2(aq)}\)

    c. \(\ce{Zn(C2H3O2)2(aq) + 2KNO3(aq) -> Zn(NO3)2(aq) + 2KC2H3O2(s)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. \(\ce{Zn(C2H3O2)2(aq) + 2KNO3(aq) -> Zn(NO3)2(aq) + 2KC2H3O2(aq)}\)

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    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{Na2SO4(aq) + HNO3(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{Na2SO4(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) -> 2NaNO3(s) + H2SO4(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{Na2SO4(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) -> 2NaNO3(aq) + H2SO4(s)}\)

    c. \(\ce{Na2SO4(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) -> 2NaNO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{Na2SO4(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) -> 2NaNO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq)}\)

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    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{CoSO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{CoSO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) -> PbSO4(aq) + Co(NO3)2(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{CoSO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) -> PbSO4(s) + Co(NO3)2(aq)}\)

    c. \(\ce{CoSO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) -> PbSO4(aq) + Co(NO3)2(s)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{CoSO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) -> PbSO4(s) + Co(NO3)2(aq)}\)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict the products and balance the following reaction. Indicate if the products are in the aqueous or solid phases.

    \(\ce{Na2CO3(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> }\)

    a. \(\ce{Na2CO3(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> CaCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq)}\)

    b. \(\ce{Na2CO3(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> CaCO3(aq) + 2NaCl(aq)}\)

    c. \(\ce{Na2CO3(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> CaCO3(aq) + 2NaCl(s)}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. \(\ce{Na2CO3(aq) + CaCl2(aq) -> CaCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq)}\)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of Na2CO3, NaI, and Na2SO4?

    a. \(\ce{Na2SO4}\)

    b. \(\ce{Na2CO3}\)

    c. \(\ce{NaI}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    d. NOTA

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of AgNO3, (NH4)2CO3, and K2SO4?

    a. \(\ce{Ag2SO4}\)

    b. \(\ce{KNO3}\)

    c. \(\ce{Ag2CO3}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{Ag2CO3}\)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of AgClO4, BaI2, and Pb(NO3)2?

    a. \(\ce{AgI}\) and \(\ce{Ba(CLO4)2}\)

    b. \(\ce{PbI}\) and \(\ce{AgI}\)

    c. \(\ce{PbI}\) and \(\ce{BaNO3}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{PbI}\) and \(\ce{AgI}\)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of CoSO4, Na2S, and K2CO3?

    a. \(\ce{Na2CO3}\),  \(\ce{Na2SO4}\) and \(\ce{K2SO4}\)

    b. \(\ce{CoS}\),  \(\ce{Na2SO4}\) and \(\ce{K2S}\)

    c. \(\ce{CoS}\) and \(\ce{CoCO3}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{CoS}\) and \(\ce{CoCO3}\)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of H3PO4, NaOH, and CaCO3?

    a. \(\ce{Ca3(PO4)2}\)

    b. \(\ce{CaOH}\)

    c. \(\ce{Na3PO4}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. \(\ce{Ca3(PO4)2}\)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of Na2S, (NH4)2CO3, and AgNO3?

    a. \(\ce{NaCO3}\) and \(\ce{Ag2CO3}\)

    b. \(\ce{Ag2S}\) and \(\ce{Ag2CO3}\)

    c. \(\ce{Ag2S}\) and \(\ce{(NH4)2S}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{Ag2S}\) and \(\ce{Ag2CO3}\)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of KC2H3O2, H2SO4, and Mg(OH)2?

    a. \(\ce{K2SO4}\)

    b. \(\ce{MgC2H3O2}\)

    c. \(\ce{MgSO4}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    d. NOTA

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of H3PO4, CaBr2, and Mg(NO3)2?

    a. \(\ce{Ca(PO4)2}\) and \(\ce{Ca(NO3)2}\)

    b. \(\ce{Mg3(PO4)2}\) and \(\ce{MgBr2}\)

    c. \(\ce{Mg3(PO4)2}\) and \(\ce{Ca3(PO4)2}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    c. \(\ce{Mg3(PO4)2}\) and \(\ce{Ca3(PO4)2}\)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of LiClO4, Ba2S, and NaOH?

    a. \(\ce{BaOH}\)

    b. \(\ce{Li2S}\)

    c. \(\ce{NaClO4}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    d. NOTA

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What solids if any would precipitate from a mixture of H2S, MgSO4, and CaCl2?

    a. \(\ce{MgS}\)

    b. \(\ce{CaS}\)

    c. \(\ce{MgCl2}\)

    d. NOTA

    Answer

    a. \(\ce{MgS}\)

    !

    Solutions

    All the questions in this section deal with the following solutions:

    Solution A: 40.0 mL of 0.500 M AlCl3
    Solution B: 60.0 mL of 1.000 M Ag2SO4

    Treat the solubilities of these solutions as would be determined from the solubility rules in the text.   In reality, things are more complicated, as silver forms a AgCl2- ion in high chloride concentrations, which causes the precipitate to redissolve, giving lower yields than predicted.   Also, in reality, Silver sulfate is a weak electrolyte and will not form a 1M solution, but we will treat it as a strong electrolyte, in accordance with our solubility rules.  This is an important concept to understand, that is, these solubility rules are a simplification of things.   During the second semester of this course we will introduce the more advanced concept of Solubility Constants, which will allow us to deal rigorously with the actual concentrations of ionic compounds in aqueous solutions.

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What are the respective aluminum and chloride concentrations in solution A?

    a. 1.0 M, 1.5M

    b. 0.5M, 0.5M

    c. 0.5M, 1.5M

    d. Not enough information

    Answer

    c. 0.5M, 1.5M

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What are the respective silver and sulfate ion concentrations in solution B?

    a. 1.000M, 1.000M

    b. 2.000M, 4.000M

    c. 2.000M, 1.000M

    d. Not enough information

    Answer

    c. 2.000M, 1.000M

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Identify any precipitates which would form if the two solutions were mixed.

    a. aluminum sulfate

    b. silver chloride

    c. aluminum sulfate and silver chloride

    d. Not enough information

    Answer

    b. silver chloride

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Identify any spectator ions which would result if the two solutions were mixed.

    a. aluminum and chloride

    b. silver and sulfate

    c. aluminum and sulfate

    d. silver and chloride

    Answer

    c. aluminum and sulfate

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the balanced general (molecular equation) for the reaction which would occur if the two solutions were mixed.

    a. Al+3 + Cl- + Ag+ + SO4-2 --> Al+3 + SO4-2 + AgCl(s)

    b. 2Al+3 + 2Cl- + 3Ag+ + 3SO4-2 --> Al+3 + SO4-2 + 6AgCl(s)

    c. 2Al+3 + 6Cl- + 6Ag+ + 3SO4-2 --> 2 Al+3 + 3SO4-2 + 6AgCl(s)

    d. none of these

    Answer

    c. 2Al+3 + 6Cl- + 6Ag+ + 3SO4-2 --> 2 Al+3 + 3SO4-2 + 6AgCl(s)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Write the net ionic equation for the reaction which would occur if the two solutions were mixed.

    a.   6Ag+ + 6Cl- --> 6AgCl(s)

    b. Ag+ + Cl- --> AgCl(s)

    c. 2Al+3 + 3SO4-2 --> 2 Al23SO4)3(s)

    d. none of these

    Answer

    c. 2Al+3 + 6Cl- + 6Ag+ + 3SO4-2 --> 2 Al+3 + 3SO4-2 + 6AgCl(s)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Calculate the number of moles of all ions in solution A.

    a.   Al+3 = 0.5 mol, Cl- = 1.5

    b. Al+3 = 0.2 mol, Cl- = 0.6

    c. Al+3 = 0.02mol, Cl- = 0.06

    d. none of these

    Answer

    c. Al+3 = 0.02mol, Cl- = 0.06

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Calculate the number of moles of all ions in solution B.

    a.   1 mol sulfate, 2 mol silver

    b. 0.12 mol sulfate, 0.060 mol silver

    c. 0.06 mol sulfate, 0.12 mole silver

    d. none of these

    Answer

    c. 0.06 mol sulfate, 0.12 mole silver

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What mass of precipitate is formed after the two solutions are mixed. Assume complete reaction.

    a. 17g

    b. 0.06g

    c. 8.6g

    d. none of these

    Answer

    c. 8.6g

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the final concentration of the excess reagent after the two solutions are mixed?

    a. 0.06M

    b. 0.60M

    c. 0.12M

    d. none of these

    Answer

    b. 0.60M

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the final concentration of the spectator ions after the two solutions are mixed?

    a. aluminum is 0.20M, sulfate is 0.60 M

    b. aluminum is 0.60M, sulfate is 0.60 M

    c. aluminum is 0.20M, sulfate is 0.20 M

    d. none of these

    Answer

    a. aluminum is 0.20M, sulfate is 0.60 M

    !

    Precipitation Reactions

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict any products formed if ammonium fluoride is mixed with magnesium nitrate.

    a. ammonium nitrate

    b. magnesium fluoride

    c. ammonium nitrate and magnesium fluroide

    d. no reaction

    Answer

    b. magnesium fluoride

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict any products that would result if solutions of mercury(I)perchlorate were mixed with Iron(III)chloride.

    a. \(\ce{HgCl}\)

    b. \(\ce{Hg2Cl2}\)

    c. \(\ce{Fe(CLO4)2}\) and \(\ce{HgCl}\)

    d. no reaction

    Answer

    b. \(\ce{Hg2Cl2}\)

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict any products that would form if solutions of sodium sulfide, potassium oxolate and ammonium carbonate were mixed.

    a. sodium carbonate

    b. ammonium oxolate

    c. ammonium sulfide and ammonium oxolate

    d. no reaction

    Answer

    d. no reaction

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict any products which would occur if solutions of Barium nitrate, lead(II)nitrate, sodium sulfate and sodium oxolate are mixed.

    a. barium sulfate

    b. Barium oxolate & lead(II)oxolate

    c. Barium sulfate, barium oxolate & lead(II)oxolate

    d. no reaction

    Answer

    c. Barium sulfate, barium oxolate & lead(II)oxolate

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Predict any products which would form if solutions of ammonium carbonate, sodium phosphate and barium chloride are mixed.

    a. ammonium phosphate

    b. barium carbonate

    c. barium carbonate & barium phosphate

    d. no reaction

    Answer

    c. barium carbonate & barium phosphate

    !

    Oxidation Numbers

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidtion state of Chlorine in HClO?

    a. 1

    b. 3

    c. 5

    d. 7

    Answer

    a. 1

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of chlorine in HClO2?

    a. 1

    b. 3

    c. 5

    d. 7

    Answer

    b. 3

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of chlorine in HClO3?

    a. 1

    b. 3

    c. 5

    d. 7

    Answer

    c. 5

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of chlorine in HClO4?

    a. 1

    b. 3

    c. 5

    d. 7

    Answer

    d. 7

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of chlorine in ClO-?

    a. 1

    b. 3

    c. 5

    d. 7

    Answer

    a. 1

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of chlorine in ClO2-?

    a. 1

    b. 3

    c. 5

    d. 7

    Answer

    b. 3

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of chlorine in ClO3-?

    a. 1

    b. 3

    c. 5

    d. 7

    Answer

    c. 5

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of chlorine in ClO4-?

    a. 1

    b. 3

    c. 5

    d. 7

    Answer

    d. 7

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of sulfur in H2SO4?

    a. 2

    b. 4

    c. 6

    d. 8

    Answer

    c. 6

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of sulfur in H2SO3?

    a. 2

    b. 4

    c. 6

    d. 8

    Answer

    b. 4

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of sulfur in SO3?

    a. 2

    b. 4

    c. 6

    d. 8

    Answer

    c. 6

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of sulfur in SO3-2?

    a. 2

    b. 4

    c. 6

    d. 8

    Answer

    b. 4

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of sulfur in SO4-2?

    a. 2

    b. 4

    c. 6

    d. 8

    Answer

    c. 6

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of sulfur in S2O3-2?

    a. 2

    b. 4

    c. 6

    d. 8

    Answer

    a. 2

    !

    !

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the oxidation state of sulfur in Na2S2O3?

    a. 2

    b. 4

    c. 6

    d. 8

    Answer

    a. 2

    !