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Chemistry LibreTexts

2.2: An Overview of Functional Groups

  • Page ID
    227010
  • Functional Group Tables

    Exclusively Carbon Functional Groups

    Group Formula

    Class Name Specific Example IUPAC Name Common Name
    Alkene H2C=CH2 Ethene Ethylene
    Alkyne HC≡CH Ethyne Acetylene
    Arene C6H6 Benzene Benzene

    Functional Groups with Single Bonds to Heteroatoms

    Group Formula
    Class Name
    Specific Example
    IUPAC Name
    Common Name
    Halide H3C-I Iodomethane Methyl iodide
    Alcohol CH3CH2OH Ethanol Ethyl alcohol
    Ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3 Diethyl ether Ether
    Amine H3C-NH2 Aminomethane Methylamine
    Nitro Compound H3C-NO2 Nitromethane
    Thiol H3C-SH Methanethiol Methyl mercaptan
    Sulfide H3C-S-CH3 Dimethyl sulfid

    Functional Groups with Multiple Bonds to Heteroatoms

    Group Formula
    Class Name
    Specific Example
    IUPAC Name
    Common Name
    Nitrile H3C-CN Ethanenitrile Acetonitrile
    Aldehyde H3CCHO Ethanal Acetaldehyde
    Ketone H3CCOCH3 Propanone Acetone
    Carboxylic Acid H3CCO2H Ethanoic Acid Acetic acid
    Ester H3CCO2CH2CH3 Ethyl ethanoate Ethyl acetate
    Acid Halide H3CCOCl Ethanoyl chloride Acetyl chloride
    Amide H3CCON(CH3)2 N,N-Dimethylethanamide N,N-Dimethylacetamide
    Acid Anhydride (H3CCO)2O Ethanoic anhydride Acetic anhydride

    Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis by Tim Soderberg (University of Minnesota, Morris)

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