# 2.2: An Overview of Functional Groups

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## Functional Group Tables

### Exclusively Carbon Functional Groups

Group Formula

Class Name Specific Example IUPAC Name Common Name
Alkene H2C=CH2 Ethene Ethylene
Alkyne HC≡CH Ethyne Acetylene
Arene C6H6 Benzene Benzene

### Functional Groups with Single Bonds to Heteroatoms

Group Formula
Class Name
Specific Example
IUPAC Name
Common Name
Halide H3C-I Iodomethane Methyl iodide
Alcohol CH3CH2OH Ethanol Ethyl alcohol
Ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3 Diethyl ether Ether
Amine H3C-NH2 Aminomethane Methylamine
Nitro Compound H3C-NO2 Nitromethane
Thiol H3C-SH Methanethiol Methyl mercaptan
Sulfide H3C-S-CH3 Dimethyl sulfid

### Functional Groups with Multiple Bonds to Heteroatoms

Group Formula
Class Name
Specific Example
IUPAC Name
Common Name
Nitrile H3C-CN Ethanenitrile Acetonitrile
Aldehyde H3CCHO Ethanal Acetaldehyde
Ketone H3CCOCH3 Propanone Acetone
Carboxylic Acid H3CCO2H Ethanoic Acid Acetic acid
Ester H3CCO2CH2CH3 Ethyl ethanoate Ethyl acetate
Acid Halide H3CCOCl Ethanoyl chloride Acetyl chloride
Amide H3CCON(CH3)2 N,N-Dimethylethanamide N,N-Dimethylacetamide
Acid Anhydride (H3CCO)2O Ethanoic anhydride Acetic anhydride

Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis by Tim Soderberg (University of Minnesota, Morris)

2.2: An Overview of Functional Groups is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.