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Chemistry LibreTexts

Structure, Bonding, and Reactivity of Benzenes

Chapter 15: Benzene, Aromaticity, and Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

Section 15.1: Naming the Benzenes
Section 15.2: Aromaticity
Section 15.3: π Molecular Orbitals of Benzene
Section 15.4: Spectral Characteristics of the Benzene Ring
Section 15.5: Polycyclic Aromatics
Section 15.6: Hückel's Rule
Section 15.7: Hückel's Rule and Charged Molecules
Section 15.8: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Section 15.9: Halogenation of Benzene-The Need for a Catalyst
Section 15.10: Nitration and Sulfonation of Benzene
Section 15.11: Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
Section 15.12: Limitations of Friedel-Crafts Alkylations
Section 15.13: Friedel-Crafts Acylation

Chapter 16: Electrophilic Attack on Derivatives of Benzene-Substituents Control Regioselectivity

Section 16.1: Activating and Deactivating Benzene Rings
Section 16.2: Directing Inductive Effects of Alkyl Groups
Section 16.3: Directing Effects of Substituents in Conjugation with the Benzene Ring
Section 16.4: Electrophilic Attack on Disubstituted Benzenes
Section 16.5: Synthetic Strategies Toward Substituted Benzenes
Section 16.6: Reactivity of Polycyclic Benzenoid Hydrocarbons