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Chemistry LibreTexts


  • Worksheet 1: Balancing Redox Reactions
    The half-equation method separates the oxidation and reduction of a redox reaction in half reactions. Overall scheme for the half reaction method is discussed with examples to follow.
  • Worksheet 2: Galvanic Cells
    The batteries in your remote and the engine in your car are only a couple of examples of how chemical reactions create power through the flow of electrons. The cell potential is the way in which we can measure how much voltage exists between the two half cells of a battery. We will explain how this is done and what components allow us to find the voltage that exists in an electrochemical cell.
  • Worksheet 3: Complex Ions & Nomenclature
    Transition metal ions and some main block elements form coordination compounds which typically consist of a coordinate complex and counter ions. Coordination complexes are composed of ligands surrounding a central metal atom or ion. The coordinate complex itself consists of a transition metal atom or ion and the surrounding ligands. The coordinate complex is always enclosed in square brackets, [ ]. The coordinate complex can be an ion, cation or anion, or a neutral complex.
  • Worksheet 4: Complex Ion Structure and Geometry
    As you have seen in the chemistry of carbon‐containing compounds, often there are several isomers possible for the same compound formula. Even when atoms are connected in the same order it is possible that we have not uniquely described the structure of the molecule. Isomers have unique properties.
  • Worksheet 5: Crystal Field Theory
    Crystal field theory is one of the simplest models for explaining the structures and properties of transition metal complexes. The theory is based on the electrostatics of the metal-ligand interaction, and so its results are only approximate in cases where the metal-ligand bond is substantially covalent. But because the model makes effective use of molecular symmetry, it can be surprisingly accurate in describing the magnetism, colors, structure, and relative stability of metal complexes.
  • Worksheet 6: Magnetism and Colors in Coordination Complexes
    According to Crystal Field Theory, the interaction between a transition metal and ligands arises from the attraction between the positively charged metal cation and negative charge on the non-bonding electrons of the ligand. The theory is developed by considering energy changes of the five degenerate d-orbitals upon being surrounded by an array of point charges consisting of the ligands. As a ligand approaches the metal the loss of degeneracy occurs.
  • Worksheet 7: Kinetics I
    Chemical kinetics is the study of the rates of chemical reactions; i.e., how fast reactants are converted into products. Experimentally determined rate law expressions show how the rate of a reaction depends upon the concentrations of the reactants and sometimes the products, too. This knowledge can be used to gain insight into the detailed molecular pathway (the mechanism) by which the reaction occurs. Understanding the mechanism allows chemists to devise ways of improving or modifying a chemic
  • Worksheet 8A: Kinetics II
    This worksheet covers once again the idea of how we define the Rate on the basis of the reaction’s stoichiometry, and it reviews the process of determining the form of the differential rate law from kinetic data. The differential rate law shows how the rate of the reaction changes with concentration of reactants (and sometime products). The integrated rate law, which is derived by means of calculus from the differential rate law, shows how the concentration of reactant changes with time.
  • Worksheet 8B: Kinetics III
    The half life of a first-order process is a constant that indicates the amount of time it takes for an initial concentration to diminish to half as much material. All chemical reactions have a faster rate at higher temperature. From this we can conclude that the magnitude of the rate constant, k, increases with rising temperature. This behavior is related to the energy barriers associated with the mechanism of the reaction, the set of molecular-level steps by which the reaction proceeds.
  • Worksheet 9: Fundamentals of Nuclear Chemistry
    Nuclear reactions are going on all around us. Using correctly balanced equations is important whetting to understand nuclear reactions. All equations need to be balance to conform to two conservation laws: The mass number and the electrical charge.
  • Worksheet 10: Transmutation and Nuclear Kinetics
    This worksheet addresses three basic principles of nuclear chemistry: (1) Energetics (via Binding energy and \(E=mc^2\), (2) Kinetics (via 1st order reactions), and (3) fission and fusion process (artificial nuclear reactions).