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Chemistry LibreTexts

8: Periodic Trends in Elements and Compounds

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    • 8.1: Electronic Structure
      The calculation of orbital energies in atoms or ions with more than one electron (multielectron atoms or ions) is complicated by repulsive interactions between the electrons. The concept of electron shielding, in which intervening electrons act to reduce the positive nuclear charge experienced by an electron, allows the use of hydrogen-like orbitals and an effective nuclear charge to describe electron distributions in more complex atoms or ions.
    • 8.2: Atomic and Ionic Radius
    • 8.3: Ionization Energy
    • 8.4: Electron Affinity
    • 8.5: Electronegativity
      Bond polarity and ionic character increase with an increasing difference in electronegativity. The electronegativity (χ) of an element is the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a chemical compound and increases diagonally from the lower left of the periodic table to the upper right. The Pauling electronegativity scale is based on measurements of the strengths of covalent bonds between different atoms, whereas the Mulliken electronegativity of an element is the average
    • 8.6: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids