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Chemistry LibreTexts

Answers to Chapter 08 & 09 Study Questions

  • Page ID
    11889
      1. 6
      2. 1
      3. 3 (two s electrons and one p electron)

    1. in order of increasing electronegativity: \(\mathrm{Ge < C < O}\)

      1. \(\ce{Li+}\)
      2. \(\ce{Na+}\)
      3. \(\ce{F}\)

      1. \(\ce{O^2-}\), \(\ce{F-}\), \(\ce{Na+}\), \(\ce{Mg^2+}\), \(\ce{Al^3+}\)
      2. \(\ce{S^2-}\), \(\ce{Cl-}\), \(\ce{K+}\), \(\ce{Ca^2+}\), \(\ce{Sc^3+}\)
      3. \(\ce{I-}\), \(\ce{Cs+}\), \(\ce{Ba^2+}\)

    1. isoelectronic


      1. 6a.png

      2. 6b.png

      3. 6c.png

      4. 6d.png

      5. 6e.png

      6. 6f.png
      7. \(\ce{P2Cl2}\)
        6g.png
      8. \(\ce{N2O4}\)
        6h.png

      9. 6i.png

      10. 6j 1.png or 6j 2.png

      1. bent, polar
      2. linear, nonpolar
      3. trigonal pyramid, polar
      4. tetrahedral, polar

    8 1.png or 8 2.png

    1. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between two atoms (usually nonmetals). The orbitals of bonding electrons overlap so that the bonding electrons spend more time between the 2 atoms. A bond is polar when one of the atoms is more electronegative than the other atom. A molecule is polar when the overall molecule has a net dipole moment, that is, electrons spend more time on one side of the molecule than the other.

    1. Chemical properties are shared within a Group but not within a Period. Group number is a good predictor of chemical properties; Period number is not.

      1. \(\mathrm{C - F}\)
      2. \(\mathrm{Si - F}\)

      1. see-saw
      2. square planar
      3. trigonal bipyramid
      4. octahedral

      1. sp3
      2. sp
      3. sp3d2
      4. sp3d
      5. sp2
      6. sp2

      1. 4 sigma bonds
      2. 3 sigma bonds, 1 pi bond
      3. 2 sigma bonds, 2 pi bonds
      4. 9 sigma bonds, 1 pi bond