A study of the basic concepts of general, organic, and biological chemistry. Topics include electronic structure of atoms and molecules, periodicity of the elements, states of matter, kinetics, equilibria, acids and bases, organic functional groups, stereochemistry, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and enzymes. Topics are presented with an emphasis on application to the allied health professions.
- Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. The basic organic chemistry reaction types are addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, photochemical reactions and redox reactions.
- Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group(NH2), a carboxylic acid group(R-C=O-OH) and a side-chain( usually denoted as R) that varies between different amino acids. They are particularly important in biochemistry, where the term usually refers to alpha-amino acids. Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form in a biologically functional way.
- Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products.
- The three dimensional shape or configuration of a molecule is an important characteristic. This shape is dependent on the preferred spatial orientation of covalent bonds to atoms having two or more bonding partners.