Table of Contents Last updated Save as PDF Page ID199702 1: The Properties of Gases1.1: The Empirical Gas Laws1.2: The Ideal Gas Law1.3: The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases1.4: Kinetic Energy1.5: Graham’s Law of Effusion1.6: Collisions with Other Molecules1.7: Real Gases1.8: Intermolecular Forces1.8.1: Van der Waals Forces1.9: Specific Interactions1.9.1: Dipole-Dipole Interactions1.9.2: Dipole Moment1.9.3: Dipole moments1.9.4: Hydrogen Bonding1.9.5: Ion - Dipole Interactions1.9.6: Ion - Induced Dipole Interactions1.9.7: Ion - Ion Interactions1.9.8: Lennard-Jones Potential1.9.9: London Dispersion Interactions1.9.10: Polarizability1.E: Gases (Exercises)1.S: Gases (Summary)2: The Boltzmann Factor and Partition Functions2.1: The Boltzmann Factor2.2: The Thermal Boltzman Distribution2.3: The Average Ensemble Energy3: Quantum Review3.1: The Schrödinger Equation and a Particle in a Box3.1.1: The Schrödinger Equation3.1.2: Linear Operators in Quantum Mechanics3.1.3: The Schrödinger Equation is an Eigenvalue Problem3.1.4: Wavefunctions Have a Probabilistic Interpretation3.1.5: The Energy of a Particle in a Box is Quantized3.1.6: Wavefunctions Must Be Normalized3.1.7: The Average Momentum of a Particle in a Box is Zero3.1.8: The Uncertainty Principle - Estimating Uncertainties from Wavefunctions3.1.9: A Particle in a Three-Dimensional Box3.1.E: The Schrödinger Equation and a Particle in a Box (Exercises)3.2: The Harmonic Oscillator and the Rigid Rotor3.2.1: A Harmonic Oscillator Obeys Hooke's Law3.2.2: The Equation for a Harmonic-Oscillator Model of a Diatomic Molecule Contains the Reduced Mass of the Molecule3.2.3: The Harmonic Oscillator Approximates Vibrations3.2.4: The Harmonic Oscillator Energy Levels3.2.5: The Harmonic Oscillator and Infrared Spectra3.2.6: The Harmonic-Oscillator Wavefunctions involve Hermite Polynomials3.2.7: Hermite Polynomials are either Even or Odd Functions3.2.8: The Energy Levels of a Rigid Rotor3.2.9: The Rigid Rotator is a Model for a Rotating Diatomic Molecule3.2.E: The Harmonic Oscillator and the Rigid Rotor (Exercises)4: Partition Functions of Model Systems4.1: Translational Partition Functions of Monotonic Gases4.2: Most Atoms are in the Ground Electronic State4.3: The Energy of a Diatomic Molecule Can Be Approximated as a Sum of Separate Terms4.4: Most Molecules are in the Ground Vibrational State4.5: Most Molecules are Rotationally Excited at Ordinary Temperatures4.6: Rotational Partition Functions of Diatomic Gases4.7: Vibrational Partition Functions of Polyatomic Molecules4.8: Rotational Partition Functions of Polyatomic Molecules4.9: Molar Heat Capacities4.E: Partition Functions and Ideal Gases (Exercises)4.10: Ortho and Para Hydrogen4.11: The Equipartition PrincipleSymmetry and Group Theory5: Energy and Enthalpy5.1: First Law of Thermodynamics (Summary)5.2: Prelude to Thermodynamics5.3: Work and Heat5.4: Reversible and Irreversible Pathways5.5: The Joule Experiment5.6: Calorimetry5.7: Reaction Enthalpies5.8: Lattice Energy and the Born-Haber Cycle5.E: First Law of Thermodynamics (Exercises)6: Entropy, Part I6.1: Introduction to the Second Law6.2: Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle6.3: Entropy6.4: Calculating Entropy Changes6.5: Comparing the System and the Surroundings6.6: Entropy and Disorder6.7: The Third Law of Thermodynamics6.8: Adiabatic Compressibility6.E: The Second Law (Exercises)6.S: The Second Law (Summary)7: Entropy, Part II7.1: Calculating Entropy Changes7.2: Trouton's rule7.3: The Third Law of Thermodynamics8: Gibbs and Helmholtz Energies8.1: Free Energy Functions8.2: Combining the First and Second Laws - Maxwell's Relations8.3: ΔA, ΔG, and Maximum Work8.4: Volume Dependence of Helmholtz Energy8.5: Pressure Dependence of Gibbs Energy8.6: Temperature Dependence of A and G8.7: When Two Variables Change at Once8.8: The Difference between Cp and Cv8.9: Putting the Second Law to Work (Exercises)8.S: Putting the Second Law to Work (Summary)9: Phase Equilibria9.1: Thermodynamics of Mixing9.2: Partial Molar Volume9.3: Chemical Potential9.4: The Gibbs-Duhem Equation9.5: Non-ideality in Gases - Fugacity9.6: Colligative Properties9.7: Solubility9.8: Non-ideality in Solutions - Activity9.9: Prelude to Phase Equilibrium9.E: Mixtures and Solutions (Exercises)9.E: Phase Equilibrium (Exercises)9.S: Mixtures and Solutions (Summary)9.10: Single Component Phase Diagrams9.11: Criterion for Phase Equilibrium9.12: The Clapeyron Equation9.13: The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation10: Chemical Equilibrium10.1: Prelude to Chemical Equilibria10.2: Chemical Potential10.3: Activities and Fugacities10.4: Pressure Dependence of Kp - Le Châtelier's Principle10.5: Degree of Dissociation10.6: Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants - the van’t Hoff Equation10.7: The Dumas Bulb Method for Measuring Decomposition Equilibrium10.8: Acid-Base Equilibria10.9: Buffers10.E: Chemical Equilibria (Exercises)10.S: Chemical Equilibria (Summary)11: Solutions- Liquid-Liquid Solutions11.1: Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures11.2: Liquid-Vapor Systems - Raoult’s Law11.3: Non-ideality - Henry's Law and AzeotropesMath ReviewBack MatterIndexGlossary