# Homework 20 (Due 5/27/2016)


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## Q20.1

Which of these molecules has the shortest bond: $$F_2^+$$, $$F_2$$, or $$F_2^-$$? Explain in terms of molecular orbital theory.

## Q20.2

Superoxide anions ($$O_2^-$$) are often produced in the cells and can become toxic. To avoid this dangerous situation, the cells use superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that catalyze the reaction of superoxide with diatomic hydrogen to produce oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.
1. Draw the bonding and antibonding orbitals in the superoxide anion.
2. Which of the two molecular orbitals has more hydrogen 1s character.
3. Draw the molecular orbital energy-level diagram, and write the electron configuration for the radical.
4. Calculate the bond order afterward.
5. Is this anion is diamagnetic or paramagnetic?
6. Write the balanced chemical reaction that is catalyzed by superoxide dismutase.

## Q20.3

Ozone $$(O_3$$) is very important for all of the organisms that are living on Earth because it protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays from the Sun.
1. Draw the Lewis and resonance structure for $$O_3$$.
2. Write the wavefunction for the lowest-energy molecular orbital of $$O_3$$. Hint: use the fully constructive combination of atomic orbitals.

## Q20.4

Between pyrene and naphthalene, which molecule has a greater degree of delocalization of their $$\pi$$ electrons? Hint: Google the structures if you do not know them.

## Q20.5

What is meant by the "law of conservation of orbitals" if that terms were introduce in class regarding molecule orbitals?

## Q20.6

If a diatomic molecule has a bond order of 2 and six bonding electrons, how many antibonding electrons must it have? What would be the corresponding Lewis electron structure (disregarding lone pairs)? What would be the effect of a one-electron reduction on the bond distance?

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