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Chemistry LibreTexts

III: Solids, Liquids, and Phase Transitions

  • Page ID
    • 3.1: Bulk Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solids - Molecular Interpretation
      The state of a substance depends on the balance between the kinetic energy of the individual particles (molecules or atoms) and the intermolecular forces. The kinetic energy keeps the molecules apart and moving around, and is a function of the temperature of the substance and the intermolecular forces try to draw the particles together.
    • 3.2: Intermolecular Forces - Origins in Molecular Structure
      Molecules in liquids are held to other molecules by intermolecular interactions, which are weaker than the intramolecular interactions that hold molecules and polyatomic ions together. The three major types of intermolecular interactions are dipole–dipole interactions, London dispersion forces (these two are often referred to collectively as van der Waals forces), and hydrogen bonds.
    • 3.3: Intermolecular Forces in Liquids
      Surface tension, capillary action, and viscosity are unique properties of liquids that depend on the nature of intermolecular interactions. Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid. Surfactants are molecules that reduce the surface tension of polar liquids like water. Capillary action is the phenomenon in which liquids rise up into a narrow tube called a capillary. The viscosity of a liquid is its resistance to flow.
    • 3.4: Phase Equilibrium
      Because the molecules of a liquid are in constant motion and possess a wide range of kinetic energies, at any moment some fraction of them has enough energy to escape from the surface of the liquid to enter the gas or vapor phase. This process, called vaporization or evaporation, generates a vapor pressure above the liquid. Molecules in the gas phase can collide with the liquid surface and reenter the liquid via condensation.
    • 3.5: Phase Transitions
      Fusion, vaporization, and sublimation are endothermic processes, whereas freezing, condensation, and deposition are exothermic processes. Changes of state are examples of phase changes, or phase transitions. All phase changes are accompanied by changes in the energy of a system. Changes from a more-ordered state to a less-ordered state (such as a liquid to a gas) are endothermic. Changes from a less-ordered state to a more-ordered state (such as a liquid to a solid) are always exothermic.
    • 3.6: Phase Diagrams
      The states of matter exhibited by a substance under different temperatures and pressures can be summarized graphically in a phase diagram, which is a plot of pressure versus temperature. Phase diagrams contain discrete regions corresponding to the solid, liquid, and gas phases. The solid and liquid regions are separated by the melting curve of the substance, and the liquid and gas regions are separated by its vapor pressure curve, which ends at the critical point.
    • 3.7: Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
      The Clausius-Clapeyron equation allows us to estimate the vapor pressure at another temperature, if the vapor pressure is known at some temperature, and if the enthalpy of vaporization is known.
    • 3.8: The Solid State
      When most liquids are cooled, they eventually freeze and form crystalline solids, solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern. It is also possible for a liquid to freeze before its molecules become arranged in an orderly pattern. The resulting materials are called amorphous solids or noncrystalline solids (or, sometimes, glasses). The particles of such solids lack an ordered internal structure and are randomly arranged.
    • 3.9: Bonding in Metals
      In the 1900's, Paul Drüde came up with the "sea of electrons" metallic bonding theory by modeling metals as a mixture of atomic cores (atomic cores = positive nuclei + inner shell of electrons) and valence electrons. Metallic bonds occur among metal atoms. Whereas ionic bonds join metals to non-metals, metallic bonding joins a bulk of metal atoms. A sheet of aluminum foil and a copper wire are both places where you can see metallic bonding in action.
    • 3.E: Solids, Liquids, and Phase Transitions (Exercises)
      These are homework exercises to accompany the Textmap created for "Principles of Modern Chemistry" by Oxtoby et al.