# 1: Serial vs. Parallel

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## Series vs. Parallel

There are two basic ways of setting up wired communication, in series or in parallel.  Series communication lines transmit data one bit at a time, while parallel lines can simultaneously transmit multiple bits of data. You can look at the voltage as being on (high) or off (low) and by creating a "start" and "end" bit you can create a data frame that represents information similar to how computers store data in memory chips.  Although parallel lines are faster than serial, they are more expensive and the close proximity of multiple lines to each other cause signal distortion because as the voltage rises and falls in one line it induces a magnetic field that induces a current in adjacent wires in the opposite direction (see Faraday's Law of Induction-Lenz's Law). Parallel lines are typically used where speed is important, like when the CPU is communicating with memory modules. Most wired IOT devices use series communication protocols as they are cheaper, and you can run them for greater distances without inducing signal lose.

 Serial Parallel Speed Slower, one bit is transferred at each clock pulse faster, multiple bits (8,16,32..) are transferred at each clock pulse Distance Good for Long Distance Good for Short Distance, May Suffer Signal Degradation Over Long Distance Interference Less Prone to Crosstalk Prone to Crosstalk, when the signals of different wires induce flow in adjacent wires Bandwidth Limited High Bandwidth Potential Cost Tends to be Cheaper Tends to be More Expensive Applications sensors, peripherals (mice, keyboards) Inside CPU and RAM Issues simpler circuits, speed Needs More Wire, Crosstalk, Complicated, Clock Skew (bits may not transfer simultaneously)

## Tutorials

1: Serial vs. Parallel is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.