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4: Chemical Equilibrium

  • Page ID
    440695
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    • 4.1: Prelude to Equilibrium
      Reactions can occur in both directions simultaneously (reactants to products and products to reactants) and eventually reach a state of balance. Reactions can occur in both directions simultaneously (reactants to products and products to reactants) and eventually reach a state of balance.
    • 4.2: Chemical Equilibria
      A reaction is at equilibrium when the amounts of reactants or products no longer change. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process, meaning the rate of formation of products by the forward reaction is equal to the rate at which the products re-form reactants by the reverse reaction.
    • 4.3: Equilibrium Constants
      For any reaction that is at equilibrium, the reaction quotient Q is equal to the equilibrium constant K for the reaction. If a reactant or product is a pure solid, a pure liquid, or the solvent in a dilute solution, the concentration of this component does not appear in the expression for the equilibrium constant. At equilibrium, the values of the concentrations of the reactants and products are constant and the reaction quotient will always equal K.
    • 4.4: Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant
      For a reversible process (with no external work), the change in free energy can be expressed in terms of volume, pressure, entropy, and temperature. If the products and reactants are in their standard states and ΔG° < 0, then K > 1, and products are favored over reactants at equilibrium. If ΔG° > 0, then K < 1, and reactants are favored over products at equilibrium. If ΔG° = 0, then K=1, and neither reactants nor products are favored at equilibrium. We can use the measured equilibrium constant
    • 4.5: Equilibrium Calculations
      The ratios of the rate of change in concentrations of a reaction are equal to the ratios of the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. The sign of the coefficient of X is positive when the concentration increases and negative when it decreases. We learned to approach three basic types of equilibrium problems. When given the concentrations of the reactants and products at equilibrium, we can solve for the equilibrium constant.
    • 4.6: Precipitation and Dissolution
      The equilibrium constant for an equilibrium involving the precipitation or dissolution of a slightly soluble ionic solid is called the solubility product, Ksp, of the solid. The solubility product of a slightly soluble electrolyte can be calculated from its solubility; conversely, its solubility can be calculated from its Ksp, provided the only significant reaction that occurs when the solid dissolves is the formation of its ions.
    • 4.7: Solubility Products
    • 4.8: Shifting Equilibria - Le Chatelier’s Principle
      Systems at equilibrium can be disturbed by changes to temperature, concentration, and, in some cases, volume and pressure; volume and pressure changes will disturb equilibrium if the number of moles of gas is different on the reactant and product sides of the reaction. The system's response to these disturbances is described by Le Châtelier's principle: The system will respond in a way that counteracts the disturbance. Not all changes to the system result in a disturbance of the equilibrium.


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