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4: Bonding Theories

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    438278
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    • 4.1: Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
      We can use hybrid orbitals, which are mathematical combinations of some or all of the valence atomic orbitals, to describe the electron density around covalently bonded atoms. These hybrid orbitals either form sigma (σ) bonds directed toward other atoms of the molecule or contain lone pairs of electrons. We can determine the type of hybridization around a central atom from the geometry of the regions of electron density about it.
    • 4.2: Multiple Covalent Bonds
      So far in our molecular orbital descriptions we have not dealt with polyatomic systems with multiple bonds. To do so, we can use an approach in which we describe σσ bonding using localized electron-pair bonds formed by hybrid atomic orbitals, and ππ bonding using molecular orbitals formed by unhybridized np atomic orbitals.


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