# 14.E: Homework Chapter 14

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Dilutions with Strong Acids and Strong Bases:

1. In 0.100 M HBr, how much of this acid is needed to completely neutralize 35.0 mL of 1.00 M NaOH?

2. In 1.00 M KOH, how much of this base is needed to completely neutralize 38.0 mL of 1.00 M HCl?

3. In 10.0 M HCl, how much of this acid is needed to completely neutralize 40.0 mL of 12.0 M NaOH?

Neutralization Reactions:

4. Explain what a neutralization reaction is. What are its reactants and products?

5. For the following pairs, write their neutralization reaction.

a.) NaOH(aq) and HI(aq)

b.) KOH(aq) and HCl(aq)

c.) RbOH(aq) and HBr(aq)

d.) Ba(OH)2(aq) and HClO4(aq)

6. For the following pairs, write their neutralization reaction.

a.) Sr(OH)2(aq) and HI(aq)

b.) CsOH(aq) and HClO3(aq)

c.) LiOH(aq) and HBr(aq)

d.) NaOH(aq) and HNO3(aq)

7. For the following pairs, write their neutralization reaction.

a.) Ca(OH)2(aq) and HCl(aq)

b.) NaOH(aq) and H2SO4(aq)

c.) Ba(OH)2(aq) and HNO3(aq)

d.) CsOH(aq) and HBr(aq)

8. For each of the following metals, write their balanced reaction for when they react with HClO3.

a.) Al(s)

b.) K(s)

c.) Na(s)

d.) Mg(s)

9. For each of the following metals, write their balanced reaction for when they react with HCl.

a.) Ca(s)

b.) Li(s)

c.) K(s)

d.) Ba(s)

Strong Acids and Bases vs. Weak Acids and Bases:

10. For each of the following acids listed below, state whether they are strong or weak.

a.) HCl(aq)

b.) H2CO3(aq)

c.) HClO3(aq)

d.) H2SO4(aq)

11. For each of the following bases listed below, state whether they are strong or weak.

a.) NH3(aq)

b.) NaOH(aq)

c.) NH4OH(aq)

d.) CsOH(aq)

12. For each of the following acids listed below, state whether they are strong or weak.

a.) CH3COOH(aq)

b.) HF(aq)

c.) HBr(aq)

d.) HCN(aq)

13. For each of the following acids listed below, state whether they are strong or weak.

a.) HClO4(aq)

b.) HI(aq)

c.) HCOOH(aq)

d.) H2S(aq)

14. For the following concentrations, determine [H3O+] for the strong acids, and state the concentration that [H3O+] must be less than for the weak acids.

a.) 1.00 M HCl(aq)

b.) 2.50 M H2SO4(aq)

c.) 1.50 M CH3COOH(aq)

d.) 5.00 M HBr(aq)

15. For the following concentrations, determine [H3O+] for the strong acids, and state the concentration that [H3O+] must be less than for the weak acids.

a.) 12.0 M HCHO2(aq)

b.) 0.010 M HI(aq)

c.) 1.50 M H3PO4(aq)

d.) 4.30 M HNO3 (aq)

16. For the following concentrations, determine [H3O+] for the strong acids, and state the concentration that [H3O+] must be less than for the weak acids.

a.) 2.00 M H2CO3(aq)

b.) 1.00 M HCOOH(aq)

c.) 5.20 M HClO4(aq)

d.) 4.30 M HClO3(aq)

17. For the following concentrations, determine [OH-] for the strong bases, and state the concentration that [OH-] must be less than for the weak bases.

a.) 1.00 M NaOH(aq)

b.) 4.50 M NH4OH(aq)

c.) 1.50 M RbOH(aq)

d.) 2.30 M Ca(OH)2(aq)

18. For the following concentrations, determine [OH-] for the strong bases, and state the concentration that [OH-] must be less than for the weak bases.

a.) 3.05 M LiOH(aq)

b.) 0.0010 M KOH(aq)

c.) 0.200 M NH3(aq)

d.) 5.00 M CsOH(aq)

19. For the following concentrations, determine [OH-] for the strong bases, and state the concentration that [OH-] must be less than for the weak bases.

a.) 1.00 M Sr(OH)2(aq)

b.) 3.06 M Ba(OH)2(aq)

c.) 14.0 M NaOH(aq)

d.) 0.00000010 M NH4OH(aq)

BrØnsted-Lowry/Arrhenius Acids and Bases:

20. Define the following terms:

a.) BrØnsted-Lowry Acid:

b.) BrØnsted-Lowry Base:

c.) Arrhenius Acid:

d.) Arrhenius Base:

21. In the following reaction, state whether the base is acting as a BrØnsted-Lowry base or an Arrhenius base.

LiOH(s) → Li+(aq) + OH-(aq)

22. In the following reaction, state whether the acid is acting as a BrØnsted-Lowry acid or an Arrhenius acid.

HCl(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

23. In the following reaction, state whether the base is acting as a BrØnsted-Lowry base or an Arrhenius base.

HCl(aq) + NH3(aq) → NH4+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

24. In the following reaction, state whether the acid is acting as a BrØnsted-Lowry acid or an Arrhenius acid.

HNO3(aq) → H+(aq) + NO3-(aq)

25. For the following substances, state whether they are an acid or base. Then write their Arrhenius acid/base reaction to prove your answer.

a.) H2SO4(aq)

b.) NaOH(aq)

c.) CH3COOH(aq)

d.) Ca(OH)2(aq)

26.  For the following substances, state whether they are an acid or base. Then write their Arrhenius acid/base reaction to prove your answer.

a.) HI(aq)

b.) RbOH(aq)

c.) Ba(OH)2(aq)

d.) HClO3(aq)

27. For the following substances, state whether they are an acid or base. Then write their Arrhenius acid/base reaction to prove your answer.

a.) HCl(aq)

b.) HClO4 (aq)

c.) CH2O2(aq)

d.) KOH(aq)

28. For the following substances, state whether they are an acid or base. Then write their Arrhenius acid/base reaction to prove your answer.

a.) CsOH(aq)

b.) Sr(OH)2(aq)

c.) HBr(aq)

d.) H3PO4(aq)

BrØnsted-Lowry Acids/Bases & Conjugate Acids/Bases:

29. For each of the reactions below, identify the BrØnsted-Lowry acid and base. Label them as B-Acid and B-Base.

a.) HCN(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ H3O+(aq) + CN-(aq)

b.) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

c.) F-(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ HF(aq) + OH-(aq)

d.) H2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ HCO3-(aq) + H3O+(aq)

30. For each of the reactions below, identify the conjugate acid and conjugate base. Label them as C-Acid and C-Base. **Hint: these reactions are the same as the previous problem,[FM1]  if you labeled the B-Acids and B-Bases correctly, these should be easy!**

a.) HCN(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ H3O+(aq) + CN-(aq)

b.) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

c.) F-(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ HF(aq) + OH-(aq)

d.) H2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ HCO3-(aq) + H3O+(aq)

31. For the following reactions, label the BrØnsted-Lowry acid and BrØnsted-Lowry base. Then label the conjugate acid and conjugate base as well.

a.) HF(aq) + OH-(aq) ↔ F-(aq) + H2O(l)

b.) H3PO4(aq) + OH-(aq) ↔ H2PO4-(aq) + H2O(l)

c.) HCl(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

d.) CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ H3O+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq)

32. For the following reactions, label the BrØnsted-Lowry acid and BrØnsted-Lowry base. Then label the conjugate acid and conjugate base as well.

a.) HClO4(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ H3O+(aq) + ClO4-(aq)

b.) HNO2(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ H3O+(aq) + NO2-(aq)

c.) HCO3-(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ H3O+(aq) + CO32-(aq)

d.) C5H5N(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ C5H5NH+(aq) + OH-(aq)

33. For the following pairs, state whether they are or not conjugate acid-base pairs.

a.) NH3, NH4+

b.) H2CO3, CO32-

c.) H3PO4, H2PO4-

34. For the following pairs, state whether they are or not conjugate acid-base pairs.

a.) HNO3, H2NO3+

b.) HClO4, ClO4-

c.) H2SO4, SO42-

d.) HBr, Br-

35. For the following pairs, state whether they are or not conjugate acid-base pairs.

a.) CH3COOH, CH3COO-

b.) HClO4, H2ClO4+

c.) H2CO3, HCO3-

d.) HI, I2-

36. For the following acids listed below, write their conjugate base.

a.) HClO3

b.) H2SO4

c.) H2CO2

d.) H2CrO4

37. For the following acids listed below, write their conjugate base.

a.) HCNO

b.) HF

c.) H2S

d.) HIO3

38. For the following acids listed below, write their conjugate base.

a.) HMnO4

b.) H3PO4

c.) HNO4

d.) HNO3

39. For the following bases listed below, write their conjugate acid.

a.) CO32-

b.) H2PO4-

c.) SO42-

d.) ClO4-

40. For the following bases listed below, write their conjugate acid.

a.) Br-

b.) Cl-

c.) HPO42-

d.) F-

41. For the following bases listed below, write their conjugate acid.

a.) HC2O4-

b.) PO43-

c.) CH3COO-

d.) H2C2COO-

pH & pOH Calculations/Acidic vs. Basic Solutions:

42. If you are given a solution with a higher hydronium concentration when compared to the hydroxide concentration, would this solution be acidic or basic? Explain.

43. For the given concentration, state whether the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.) [H3O+] = 1.00 x10-8 M

b.) [OH-] = 1.00 x10-8 M

c.) [OH-] = 1.00 x10-7 M

d.) [H3O+] = 1.00 x10-11 M

44. For the following concentration pairs, state whether the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.) [H3O+] = 1.00 x10-5 M

b.) [OH-] = 1.00 x10-6 M

c.) [OH-] = 1.00 x10-4 M

d.) [H3O+] = 1.00 x10-7 M

45. For the following concentration pairs, state whether the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.) [OH-] = 1.00 x10-5 M

b.) [H3O+] = 1.00 x10-2 M

c.) [H3O+] = 1.00 x10-9 M

d.) [OH-] = 1.00 x10-9 M

46. In each of the following hydronium concentrations, calculate the hydroxide concentration present.

a.) [H3O+] = 2.0 x10-8

b.) [H3O+] = 1.5 x10-15 M

c.) [H3O+] = 1.8 x10-9 M

d.) [H3O+] = 4.0 x10-5

47. In each of the following hydroxide concentrations, calculate the hydronium concentration present.

a.) [OH-] = 1.0 x10-8 M

b.) [OH-] = 2.5 x10-10

c.) [OH-] = 1.5 x10-12 M

d.) [OH-] = 1.0 x10-5 M

48. In each of the following hydronium concentrations, calculate the hydroxide concentration present.

a.) [H3O+] = 2.0 x10-10 M

b.) [H3O+] = 1.5 x10-13 M

c.) [H3O+] = 1.8 x10-7 M

d.) [H3O+] = 4.0 x10-9 M

49. The following number line is a list of pH values. Circle the value that are considered neutral.

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14

50. The following number line is a list of pH values. Circle the values that are considered acidic.

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14

51. The following number line is a list of pH values. Circle the values that are considered basic.

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14

52. For each of the following pH values listed below, state whether they are acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.) pH = 4.00

b.) pH = 2.50

c.) pH = 13.06

d.) pH = 6.99

53. For each of the following pH values listed below, state whether they are acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.) pH = 0.15

b.) pH = 4.89

c.) pH = 7.00

d.) pH = 14.00

54. For each of the following pH values listed below, state whether they are acidic, basic, or neutral. Then state whether the hydronium or hydroxide concentration is higher in each of the solutions.

a.) pH = 1.20

b.) pH = 10.00

c.) pH = 7.00

d.) pH = 3.50

55. Given the following hydronium concentrations, calculate the pH for each of the solutions.

a.) [H3O+] = 1.0 x10-10 M

b.) [H3O+] = 2.7 x10-8 M

c.) [H3O+] = 1.0 x10-5 M

d.) [H3O+] = 3.0 x10-9 M

56. Given the following hydronium concentrations, calculate the pH for each of the solutions.

a.) [H3O+] = 6.0 x10-10 M

b.) [H3O+] = 4.5 x10-9 M

c.) [H3O+] =2.0 x10-5 M

d.) [H3O+] = 3.7 x10-9 M

57. Calculate the pH for the following strong acids.

a.) [HCl] = 1.0 x10-5 M

b.) [HBr] = 3.5 x10-2 M

c.) [HNO3] = 2.0 x10-4 M

d.) [HI] = 4.0 x10-5 M

58. Calculate the pOH for the following hydroxide concentrations.

a.) [OH-] = 1.0 x10-13 M

b.) [OH-] = 2.5 x10-6 M

c.) [OH-] = 3.0 x10-5 M

d.) [OH-] = 5.0 x10-4 M

59. Calculate the pOH for the following hydroxide concentrations.

a.) [OH-] = 1.5 x10-10 M

b.) [OH-] = 3.5 x10-7 M

c.) [OH-] = 8.0 x10-15 M

d.) [OH-] = 2.0 x10-4 M

60. Calculate the pOH for the following strong bases.

a.) [NaOH] = 1.0 x10-13 M

b.) [LiOH] = 2.5 x10-10 M

c.) [RbOH] = 3.0 x10-11 M

d.) [CsOH] = 1.4 x10-14 M

61. From the following pH values, determine the hydronium concentration.

a.) pH = 1.50

b.) pH = 4.00

c.) pH = 6.50

d.) pH = 3.88

62. From the following pH values, determine the hydronium concentration.

a.) pH = 3.00

b.) pH = 6.55

c.) pH = 4.90

d.) pH = 5.79

63. From the following pH values, determine the hydronium concentration.

a.) pH = 5.83

b.) pH = 4.21

c.) pH = 0.18

d.) pH = 1.99

64. From the following pOH values, determine the hydroxide concentration.

a.) pOH = 10.50

b.) pOH = 8.00

c.) pOH = 9.99

d.) pOH = 13.50

65. From the following pOH values, determine the hydroxide concentration.

a.) pOH = 11.00

b.) pOH = 9.32

c.) pOH = 7.99

d.) pOH = 14.00

66. From the following pOH values, determine the hydroxide concentration.

a.) pOH = 10.48

b.) pOH = 11.50

c.) pOH = 7.05

d.) pOH = 12.80

67. For the following hydroxide concentrations, determine the pOH and pH.

a.) [OH-] = 1.0 x10-8 M

b.) [OH-] = 2.5 x10-10 M

c.) [OH-] = 4.0 x10-9 M

d.) [OH-] = 3.8 x10-5 M

68. For the following hydronium concentrations, determine the pH and pOH.

a.) [H3O+] = 1.59 x10-13 M

b.) [H3O+] = 2.00 x10-10 M

c.) [H3O+] = 3.68 x10-10 M

d.) [H3O+] = 1.50 x10-12 M

69. Determine the pH for the following solutions.

a.) [HCl] = 0.0010 M

b.) [NaOH] = 0.020 M

c.) [H2SO4] = 0.0030 M

d.) [HNO3] = 0.0040 M

70. Determine the pH for the following solutions.

a.) [LiOH] = 0.00050 M

b.) [RbOH] = 0.0040 M

c.) [HBr] = 0.00010 M

d.) [HClO4] = 0.0050 M

71. Determine the pH for the following solutions.

a.) [HClO3] = 0.00321 M

b.) [KOH] = 0.0193 M

c.) [HI] = 0.000483 M

d.) [NaOH] = 0.148 M

72. Determine the pH from the following pOH’s; then state whether the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.) pOH = 3.89

b.) pOH = 7.00

c.) pOH = 8.03

d.) pOH = 1.68

73. Determine the pH from the following pOH’s; then state whether the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.) pOH = 6.30

b.) pOH = 3.98

c.) pOH = 12.74

d.) pOH = 8.29

74. Determine the pH from the following pOH’s; then state whether the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.

a.) pOH = 3.27

b.) pOH = 13.09

c.) pOH = 6.98

d.) pOH = 4.27

75. From the following pH values listed below, circle the value that has the highest hydroxide ion concentration.

a.) pH = 7.00

b.) pH = 1.30

c.) pH = 5.89

d.) pH = 12.83

76. From the following pH values listed below, circle the value that has the highest hydronium ion concentration.

a.) pH = 1.89

b.) pH = 14.00

c.) pH = 4.69

d.) pH = 3.64

77. From the following pOH values listed below, circle the value that has the highest hydroxide ion concentration.

a.) pOH = 4.00

b.) pOH = 5.73

c.) pOH = 1.54

d.) pOH = 13.89

Cumulative/Challenge Problems:
78. Fill in the missing spaces in the table below.

 [H3O+] (M) [OH-] (M) pOH pH Acidic or Basic a.) 0.0059 b.) 0.048 c.) 3.50 d.) 12.00

79. A 45.0 mL sample of 0.0100 M HCl was titrated with 15.0 mL of NaOH. Find the concentration of the NaOH, and then (without doing pH calculations) determine whether this titrated solution may be acidic or basic. Explain your reasoning.

80. Determine the pH of a solution that has [OH-] = 1.0 x10-5 M. Is the solution acidic or basic?

81. Determine the pOH of a solution that has [H3O+] = 1.0 x10-11 M. Is the solution acidic or basic?

82. All strong acids are monoprotic acids except for sulfuric acid. Explain why sulfuric acid is considered a strong acid. How does it dissociate in water?

83. All acids have at least one hydrogen ion in their formula, but not all bases have at least one hydroxide ion in their formula. From what you’ve learned so far in chemistry, try to come up with an explanation for why this occurs.

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