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4.E: Homework Chapter 4 Answers

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    189363
  • 1.      All matter is composed of atoms; atoms of the same element are the same, and atoms of different elements are different; atoms combine in whole-number ratios to form compounds.

    3.       

    a.    Sodium---alkali metal

    b. Magnesium---Alkaline earth metal

    c.  Calcium---Alkaline earth metal

    d.  Chlorine---halogen

    e.  Potassium---Alkali metal

    5.      Most of the alpha particles went through the metal sheet because atoms are mostly empty space.

     

    7.      Electrons are in orbit about the nucleus.

     

    9.      The electron weighs the least.  The protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus while electrons are located outside the nucleus.

     

    11.  Proton, electron

     

    13.  Least, outside

     

    15.  a. Z = 8; O; atomic oxygen      

         b. Z = 27; Co; cobalt      

    c. Z = 33; As; arsenic

    e. Z = 90; Th; thorium

     

     

    17.   a. P        b. Mo     c. Be

     

    19.   a. Ag        b. S          c. N         d. Ne

     

    21.  a. 86 b. 74 c. 24   d. 4

     

    23.  Column 1 is the alkali metals.  Column 2 is the alkaline earth metals.  Columns 3 - 12              are the transition metals.

     

    25.  The transition metals can exist in more than one charge state.  They have variable charge.

     

    27.   Calcium and Barium (belong to same group).

     

    29.  Magnesium; Beryllium

     

    31.  Helium; Xenon; Neon

     

    33.   metal; transition metal.

     

    35.  a,d

     

    37.  a. 1A (1) b. 1A (1) c. 8A (18) d. 6A (16)

     

    39.   

    Chemical Symbol

    Group Number

    Group Name

    Metal or Non-metal

    Br

    7A (17)

    Halogens

    Non-metal

    Sr

    2A (2)

    Alkaline earth metals

    metal

    Ne

    8A (18)

    Noble gases

    Non-metal

    K

    1A (1)

    Alkali metal

    metal

     

     

    41.  a and d

     

    43.  a and b

     

    45.  a. 27    b. 38      c. 54     d. 28

     

    47.  a. 10    b. 2         c. 46     d. 30

     

    49.  a.  Li, Li+, 2nd period, group 1

    b.      F, F, 2nd period, group 17

    c.       Al, Al3+, 3nd period, group 13

     

    51.   a. 2       b. 3          c. 3         d. 1

     

    53.   

    a.       1+

    b.      2−

    c.       2+, 3+

     

    55.  SO3 is sulfur trioxide, while SO32− is the sulfite ion.

     

    57.   All isotopes of nitrogen have the same atomic number (Z = 7).  Yes, all isotopes of the same element have the same Z.


    59.   a. Z=1, A=3       b. Z=20, A=42       c. Z=73, A=182          d. Z=24, A=52

     

    61.  a.  26      b. 22      c. 2

     

    63. a.          b.           c.      d.        e.

     

    65.   

    a.       protons=43; neutrons=54; electrons=43

    b.      protons=49; neutrons=64; electrons=49

    c.       protons=28; neutrons=35; electrons=28

    d.      protons=26; neutrons=29; electrons=26

     

    67.   

    a.       protons=82; neutrons=125; electrons=82

    b.        protons=8; neutrons=8; electrons=8

    c.         protons=55; neutrons=82; electrons=55

    d.      protons=19; neutrons=21; electrons=19


    69.  This iron atom has 26 protons and 56 − 26 = 30 neutrons.


    71.   a. He    b. B          c. Bi & P

     

    73.   

    Number of protons

    Number of neutrons

    Element name

    Isotope Symbol

    80

    120

    Mercury

    26

    29

    iron

    1

    2

    Hydrogen

      

    75.  If "CO" was written as the chemical symbol for cobalt, it would be the same as the chemical formula for carbon monoxide. This ambiguity would create a lot problems such as in labeling and might lead to life-threatening danger. And The chemical symbol is ALWAYS written with the first letter in uppercase and the second letter in lowercase.

     

    77.   a) Iron, 26 protons, 24 electrons, and 32 neutrons;

         (b) iodine, 53 protons, 54 electrons, and 74 neutrons

     

      

    79.   If the atomic number of uranium is 92, then that is the number of protons in the nucleus. Because the mass number is 235, then the number of neutrons in the nucleus is 235 − 92, or 143.