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Chemistry LibreTexts

1.1 Label the Statement

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  • One of the most difficult things for students an d non-scientists to get ‘straight’ are the terms: Theory, Hypothesis, Law, Fact and Belief. This exercise consists of a series of statements, which you will mark as a statement of a Theory (T), Hypothesis (H), Fact (F), Law (L) or Belief (B).

    Fact/Observation: A basic statement established by experiment or observation. All facts are tru e under spe cific conditions. Some facts may be false when re-tested with better instruments.

    Law: A logical relationship between two or more things that is based on a variet y of facts and proven hypothesis. It is often a mathematical statement of how two or more quantities relate to each other.

    Hypothesis: A tentative statement such as ‘if A happens then B must happen’ that can be tested b y direct experiment or observation. A proven hypothesis can be expressed as a law or a theory. A disproven hypothesis can sometimes be re-tested and found correct as measurements improve.

    Theory: An explanation for why certain laws and facts e xist that ca n be tested to determine its accuracy. Belief: A st atement that is not scie ntifically provable in the same wa y as facts, la ws, hypotheses or theories. Scientifically disproven beliefs can still be held to be true.

    1 – For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

    2 - F = ma

    3 – Water freezes at 32 F

    4 – The Earth is a sphere.

    5 – The universe is expanding.

    6 – Humans were created separately from all other life on Earth.

    7 – Humans and gorillas evolved from a common ancestor species.

    8 – Light is an electromagnetic phenomenon described by Maxwell’s Laws

    9 – Matter is comprised of atoms.

    10 –The sun will die in 7.5 billion years.

    11 – Earth’s magnetic field is generated by a conducting fluid in its core.

    12 – Sunspots are colder than the surface of the Sun.

    13 – There are such things as ghosts.

    14 - The solar system formed from a primordial disk of gas and asteroidal material.

    15 - Matter can be converted into energy.

    16 – Energy can be converted into matter.

    17 – The positions of the planets can cause humans to act in specific ways.

    18 - Momentum is the product of a body’s mass and its velocity.

    19 – The core of the Sun has a temperature of 14.5 million Centigrade.

    20 – We will never know how life started on Earth.

    21 – The Milky Way is a spiral-type galaxy.

    22 – Black holes exist.

    23 – The sun will rise tomorrow morning.

    24 – The Earth is older than 10,000 years.

    25 – Genetic mutations cause organisms to change over time.

    26 – Primitive human-like creatures existed 2 million years ago.

    27 – If I jump out a window I will die.

    28 – The universe was created at the Big Bang.

    29 – The first generations of stars appeared about 100 million years after the Big Bang.

    30 – Space exists in 10-dimensions not just 3.

    31 – Some numbers are more lucky than others

    32 – More babies are born, and crimes take place, during the full moon.

    33 – The Coriolus Force makes water go down a drain counterclockwise.

    34 - The first multi-cellular organisms appeared on Earth about 560 million years ago.

    35 – The inverse-square law for gravity and Newton’s laws of motion explain why orbits are ellipses