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Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction

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  • The human male and female reproductive cycles are controlled by the interaction of hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary with hormones from reproductive tissues and organs. In both sexes, the hypothalamus monitors and causes the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. When the reproductive hormone is required, the hypothalamus sends agonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to the anterior pituitary. This causes the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary into the blood. Note that the body must reach puberty in order for the adrenals to release the hormones that must be present for GnRH to be produced. Although FSH and LH are named after their functions in female reproduction, they are produced in both sexes and play important roles in controlling reproduction. Other hormones have specific functions in the male and female reproductive systems.Hormonal control of the male reproductive system is mediated by the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and testes. The hypothalamus releases GnRN, causing the anterior pituitary to release LH and FSH. FSH and LH both act on the testes. FSH stimulates the Sertoli cells in the testes to facilitate spermatogenesis and to secrete inhibin. LH causes the Leydig cells in the testes to secrete testosterone. Testosterone further stimulates spermatogenesis by the Sertoli cells, but inhibits GnRH, LH, and FSH production by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. Inhibin secreted by Sertoli cells also inhibits FSH and LH production by the anterior pituitary.Hormones control sperm production in a negative feedback system.

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