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  • Chapter 1The Structure of Atoms

    Figure_02_00_01.jpg
    Figure 1.1
    Atoms are the building blocks of molecules found in the universe—air, soil, water, rocks . . . and also the cells of all living organisms. In this model of an organic molecule, the atoms of carbon (black), hydrogen (white), nitrogen (blue), oxygen (red), and sulfur (yellow) are shown in proportional atomic size. The silver rods indicate chemical bonds. (credit: modification of work by Christian Guthier)

    Introduction*

    Elements in various combinations comprise all matter, including living things. Some of the most abundant elements in living organisms include carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. These form the nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids that are the fundamental components of living matter. Biologists must understand these important building blocks and the unique structures of the atoms that make up molecules, allowing for the formation of cells, tissues, organ systems, and entire organisms.

    All biological processes follow the laws of physics and chemistry, so in order to understand how biological systems work, it is important to understand the underlying physics and chemistry. For example, the flow of blood within the circulatory system follows the laws of physics that regulate the modes of fluid flow. The breakdown of the large, complex molecules of food into smaller molecules—and the conversion of these to release energy to be stored in adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—is a series of chemical reactions that follow chemical laws. The properties of water and the formation of hydrogen bonds are key to understanding living processes. Recognizing the properties of acids and bases is important, for example, to our understanding of the digestive process. Therefore, the fundamentals of physics and chemistry are important for gaining insight into biological processes.

    1.1Phases and Classification of Matter*

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    • Describe the basic properties of each physical state of matter: solid, liquid, and gas

    • Define and give examples of atoms and molecules

    • Classify matter as an element, compound, homogeneous mixture, or heterogeneous mixture with regard to its physical state and composition

    • Distinguish between mass and weight

    • Apply the law of conservation of matter

    Matter is defined as anything that occupies space and has mass, and it is all around us. Solids and liquids are more obviously matter: We can see that they take up space, and their weight tells us that they have mass. Gases are also matter; if gases did not take up space, a balloon would stay collapsed rather than inflate when filled with gas.

    Solids, liquids, and gases are the three states of matter commonly found on earth (Figure 1.2). A solid is rigid and possesses a definite shape. A liquid flows and takes the shape of a container, except that it forms a flat or slightly curved upper surface when acted upon by gravity. (In zero gravity, liquids assume a spherical shape.) Both liquid and solid samples have volumes that are very nearly independent of pressure. A gas takes both the shape and volume of its container.

    CNX_Chem_01_02_StatesMatt.jpg
    Figure 1.2
    The three most common states or phases of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.

    A fourth state of matter, plasma, occurs naturally in the interiors of stars. A plasma is a gaseous state of matter that contains appreciable numbers of electrically charged particles (Figure 1.3). The presence of these charged particles imparts unique properties to plasmas that justify their classification as a state of matter distinct from gases. In addition to stars, plasmas are found in some other high-temperature environments (both natural and man-made), such as lightning strikes, certain television screens, and specialized analytical instruments used to detect trace amounts of metals.

    CNX_Chem_01_02_Plasma.jpg
    Figure 1.3
    A plasma torch can be used to cut metal. (credit: “Hypertherm”/Wikimedia Commons)

    Some samples of matter appear to have properties of solids, liquids, and/or gases at the same time. This can occur when the sample is composed of many small pieces. For example, we can pour sand as if it were a liquid because it is composed of many small grains of solid sand. Matter can also have properties of more than one state when it is a mixture, such as with clouds. Clouds appear to behave somewhat like gases, but they are actually mixtures of air (gas) and tiny particles of water (liquid or solid).

    The mass of an object is a measure of the amount of matter in it. One way to measure an object’s mass is to measure the force it takes to accelerate the object. It takes much more force to accelerate a car than a bicycle because the car has much more mass. A more common way to determine the mass of an object is to use a balance to compare its mass with a standard mass.

    Although weight is related to mass, it is not the same thing. Weight refers to the force that gravity exerts on an object. This force is directly proportional to the mass of the object. The weight of an object changes as the force of gravity changes, but its mass does not. An astronaut’s mass does not change just because she goes to the moon. But her weight on the moon is only one-sixth her earth-bound weight because the moon’s gravity is only one-sixth that of the earth’s. She may feel “weightless” during her trip when she experiences negligible external forces (gravitational or any other), although she is, of course, never “massless.”

    The law of conservation of matter summarizes many scientific observations about matter: It states that there is no detectable change in the total quantity of matter present when matter converts from one type to another (a chemical change) or changes among solid, liquid, or gaseous states (a physical change). Brewing beer and the operation of batteries provide examples of the conservation of matter (Figure 1.4). During the brewing of beer, the ingredients (water, yeast, grains, malt, hops, and sugar) are converted into beer (water, alcohol, carbonation, and flavoring substances) with no actual loss of substance. This is most clearly seen during the bottling process, when glucose turns into ethanol and carbon dioxide, and the total mass of the substances does not change. This can also be seen in a lead-acid car battery: The original substances (lead, lead oxide, and sulfuric acid), which are capable of producing electricity, are changed into other substances (lead sulfate and water) that do not produce electricity, with no change in the actual amount of matter.

    CNX_Chem_01_02_ConsMatter.jpg
    Figure 1.4
    (a) The mass of beer precursor materials is the same as the mass of beer produced: Sugar has become alcohol and carbonation. (b) The mass of the lead, lead oxide plates, and sulfuric acid that goes into the production of electricity is exactly equal to the mass of lead sulfate and water that is formed.

    Although this conservation law holds true for all conversions of matter, convincing examples are few and far between because, outside of the controlled conditions in a laboratory, we seldom collect all of the material that is produced during a particular conversion. For example, when you eat, digest, and assimilate food, all of the matter in the original food is preserved. But because some of the matter is incorporated into your body, and much is excreted as various types of waste, it is challenging to verify by measurement.

    Atoms and Molecules

    An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element and can enter into a chemical combination. Consider the element gold, for example. Imagine cutting a gold nugget in half, then cutting one of the halves in half, and repeating this process until a piece of gold remained that was so small that it could not be cut in half (regardless of how tiny your knife may be). This minimally sized piece of gold is an atom (from the Greek atomos, meaning “indivisible”) (Figure 1.5). This atom would no longer be gold if it were divided any further.

    CNX_Chem_01_02_GoldAtoms.jpg
    Figure 1.5
    (a) This photograph shows a gold nugget. (b) A scanning-tunneling microscope (STM) can generate views of the surfaces of solids, such as this image of a gold crystal. Each sphere represents one gold atom. (credit a: modification of work by United States Geological Survey; credit b: modification of work by “Erwinrossen”/Wikimedia Commons)

    The first suggestion that matter is composed of atoms is attributed to the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, who developed their ideas in the 5th century BCE. However, it was not until the early nineteenth century that John Dalton (1766–1844), a British schoolteacher with a keen interest in science, supported this hypothesis with quantitative measurements. Since that time, repeated experiments have confirmed many aspects of this hypothesis, and it has become one of the central theories of chemistry. Other aspects of Dalton’s atomic theory are still used but with minor revisions (details of Dalton’s theory are provided in the chapter on atoms and molecules).

    An atom is so small that its size is difficult to imagine. One of the smallest things we can see with our unaided eye is a single thread of a spider web: These strands are about 1/10,000 of a centimeter (0.0001 cm) in diameter. Although the cross-section of one strand is almost impossible to see without a microscope, it is huge on an atomic scale. A single carbon atom in the web has a diameter of about 0.000000015 centimeter, and it would take about 7000 carbon atoms to span the diameter of the strand. To put this in perspective, if a carbon atom were the size of a dime, the cross-section of one strand would be larger than a football field, which would require about 150 million carbon atom “dimes” to cover it. (Figure 1.6) shows increasingly close microscopic and atomic-level views of ordinary cotton.

    CNX_Chem_01_02_Cellulose.jpg
    Figure 1.6
    These images provide an increasingly closer view: (a) a cotton boll, (b) a single cotton fiber viewed under an optical microscope (magnified 40 times), (c) an image of a cotton fiber obtained with an electron microscope (much higher magnification than with the optical microscope); and (d and e) atomic-level models of the fiber (spheres of different colors represent atoms of different elements). (credit c: modification of work by “Featheredtar”/Wikimedia Commons)

    An atom is so light that its mass is also difficult to imagine. A billion lead atoms (1,000,000,000 atoms) weigh about 3 × 10−13 grams, a mass that is far too light to be weighed on even the world’s most sensitive balances. It would require over 300,000,000,000,000 lead atoms (300 trillion, or 3 × 1014) to be weighed, and they would weigh only 0.0000001 gram.

    It is rare to find collections of individual atoms. Only a few elements, such as the gases helium, neon, and argon, consist of a collection of individual atoms that move about independently of one another. Other elements, such as the gases hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and chlorine, are composed of units that consist of pairs of atoms (Figure 1.7). One form of the element phosphorus consists of units composed of four phosphorus atoms. The element sulfur exists in various forms, one of which consists of units composed of eight sulfur atoms. These units are called molecules. A molecule consists of two or more atoms joined by strong forces called chemical bonds. The atoms in a molecule move around as a unit, much like the cans of soda in a six-pack or a bunch of keys joined together on a single key ring. A molecule may consist of two or more identical atoms, as in the molecules found in the elements hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, or it may consist of two or more different atoms, as in the molecules found in water. Each water molecule is a unit that contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Each glucose molecule is a unit that contains 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms. Like atoms, molecules are incredibly small and light. If an ordinary glass of water were enlarged to the size of the earth, the water molecules inside it would be about the size of golf balls.

    CNX_Chem_01_02_Molecules.jpg
    Figure 1.7
    The elements hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur form molecules consisting of two or more atoms of the same element. The compounds water, carbon dioxide, and glucose consist of combinations of atoms of different elements.

    Classifying Matter

    We can classify matter into several categories. Two broad categories are mixtures and pure substances. A pure substance has a constant composition. All specimens of a pure substance have exactly the same makeup and properties. Any sample of sucrose (table sugar) consists of 42.1% carbon, 6.5% hydrogen, and 51.4% oxygen by mass. Any sample of sucrose also has the same physical properties, such as melting point, color, and sweetness, regardless of the source from which it is isolated.

    We can divide pure substances into two classes: elements and compounds. Pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical changes are called elements. Iron, silver, gold, aluminum, sulfur, oxygen, and copper are familiar examples of the more than 100 known elements, of which about 90 occur naturally on the earth, and two dozen or so have been created in laboratories.

    Pure substances that can be broken down by chemical changes are called compounds. This breakdown may produce either elements or other compounds, or both. Mercury(II) oxide, an orange, crystalline solid, can be broken down by heat into the elements mercury and oxygen (Figure 1.8). When heated in the absence of air, the compound sucrose is broken down into the element carbon and the compound water. (The initial stage of this process, when the sugar is turning brown, is known as caramelization—this is what imparts the characteristic sweet and nutty flavor to caramel apples, caramelized onions, and caramel). Silver(I) chloride is a white solid that can be broken down into its elements, silver and chlorine, by absorption of light. This property is the basis for the use of this compound in photographic films and photochromic eyeglasses (those with lenses that darken when exposed to light).

    CNX_Chem_01_02_decomp.jpg
    Figure 1.8
    (a)The compound mercury(II) oxide, (b)when heated, (c) decomposes into silvery droplets of liquid mercury and invisible oxygen gas. (credit: modification of work by Paul Flowers)

    The properties of combined elements are different from those in the free, or uncombined, state. For example, white crystalline sugar (sucrose) is a compound resulting from the chemical combination of the element carbon, which is a black solid in one of its uncombined forms, and the two elements hydrogen and oxygen, which are colorless gases when uncombined. Free sodium, an element that is a soft, shiny, metallic solid, and free chlorine, an element that is a yellow-green gas, combine to form sodium chloride (table salt), a compound that is a white, crystalline solid.

    A mixture is composed of two or more types of matter that can be present in varying amounts and can be separated by physical changes, such as evaporation (you will learn more about this later). A mixture with a composition that varies from point to point is called a heterogeneous mixture. Italian dressing is an example of a heterogeneous mixture (Figure 1.9). Its composition can vary because we can make it from varying amounts of oil, vinegar, and herbs. It is not the same from point to point throughout the mixture—one drop may be mostly vinegar, whereas a different drop may be mostly oil or herbs because the oil and vinegar separate and the herbs settle. Other examples of heterogeneous mixtures are chocolate chip cookies (we can see the separate bits of chocolate, nuts, and cookie dough) and granite (we can see the quartz, mica, feldspar, and more).

    A homogeneous mixture, also called a solution, exhibits a uniform composition and appears visually the same throughout. An example of a solution is a sports drink, consisting of water, sugar, coloring, flavoring, and electrolytes mixed together uniformly (Figure 1.9). Each drop of a sports drink tastes the same because each drop contains the same amounts of water, sugar, and other components. Note that the composition of a sports drink can vary—it could be made with somewhat more or less sugar, flavoring, or other components, and still be a sports drink. Other examples of homogeneous mixtures include air, maple syrup, gasoline, and a solution of salt in water.

    CNX_Chem_01_02_Mixtures.jpg
    Figure 1.9
    (a) Oil and vinegar salad dressing is a heterogeneous mixture because its composition is not uniform throughout. (b) A commercial sports drink is a homogeneous mixture because its composition is uniform throughout. (credit a “left”: modification of work by John Mayer; credit a “right”: modification of work by Umberto Salvagnin; credit b “left: modification of work by Jeff Bedford)

    Although there are just over 100 elements, tens of millions of chemical compounds result from different combinations of these elements. Each compound has a specific composition and possesses definite chemical and physical properties by which we can distinguish it from all other compounds. And, of course, there are innumerable ways to combine elements and compounds to form different mixtures. A summary of how to distinguish between the various major classifications of matter is shown in (Figure 1.10).

    CNX_Chem_01_02_MattType.jpg
    Figure 1.10
    Depending on its properties, a given substance can be classified as a homogeneous mixture, a heterogeneous mixture, a compound, or an element.

    Eleven elements make up about 99% of the earth’s crust and atmosphere (Table 1.1). Oxygen constitutes nearly one-half and silicon about one-quarter of the total quantity of these elements. A majority of elements on earth are found in chemical combinations with other elements; about one-quarter of the elements are also found in the free state.

    Table 1.1.
    Elemental Composition of Earth
    ElementSymbolPercent Mass ElementSymbolPercent Mass
    oxygenO49.20 chlorineCl0.19
    siliconSi25.67phosphorusP0.11
    aluminumAl7.50manganeseMn0.09
    ironFe4.71carbonC0.08
    calciumCa3.39sulfurS0.06
    sodiumNa2.63bariumBa0.04
    potassiumK2.40nitrogenN0.03
    magnesiumMg1.93fluorineF0.03
    hydrogenH0.87strontiumSr0.02
    titaniumTi0.58all others-0.47
    Decomposition of Water / Production of Hydrogen

    Water consists of the elements hydrogen and oxygen combined in a 2 to 1 ratio. Water can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen gases by the addition of energy. One way to do this is with a battery or power supply, as shown in (Figure 1.11).

    CNX_Chem_01_01_Electrolys.jpg
    Figure 1.11
    The decomposition of water is shown at the macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels. The battery provides an electric current (microscopic) that decomposes water. At the macroscopic level, the liquid separates into the gases hydrogen (on the left) and oxygen (on the right). Symbolically, this change is presented by showing how liquid H2O separates into H2 and O2 gases.

    The breakdown of water involves a rearrangement of the atoms in water molecules into different molecules, each composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, respectively. Two water molecules form one oxygen molecule and two hydrogen molecules. The representation for what occurs, _autogen-svg2png-0003.png will be explored in more depth in later chapters.

    The two gases produced have distinctly different properties. Oxygen is not flammable but is required for combustion of a fuel, and hydrogen is highly flammable and a potent energy source. How might this knowledge be applied in our world? One application involves research into more fuel-efficient transportation. Fuel-cell vehicles (FCV) run on hydrogen instead of gasoline (Figure 1.12). They are more efficient than vehicles with internal combustion engines, are nonpolluting, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, making us less dependent on fossil fuels. FCVs are not yet economically viable, however, and current hydrogen production depends on natural gas. If we can develop a process to economically decompose water, or produce hydrogen in another environmentally sound way, FCVs may be the way of the future.

    CNX_Chem_01_01_FuelCell.jpg
    Figure 1.12
    A fuel cell generates electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen via an electrochemical process and produces only water as the waste product.
    Chemistry of Cell Phones

    Imagine how different your life would be without cell phones (Figure 1.13) and other smart devices. Cell phones are made from numerous chemical substances, which are extracted, refined, purified, and assembled using an extensive and in-depth understanding of chemical principles. About 30% of the elements that are found in nature are found within a typical smart phone. The case/body/frame consists of a combination of sturdy, durable polymers comprised primarily of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen [acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate thermoplastics], and light, strong, structural metals, such as aluminum, magnesium, and iron. The display screen is made from a specially toughened glass (silica glass strengthened by the addition of aluminum, sodium, and potassium) and coated with a material to make it conductive (such as indium tin oxide). The circuit board uses a semiconductor material (usually silicon); commonly used metals like copper, tin, silver, and gold; and more unfamiliar elements such as yttrium, praseodymium, and gadolinium. The battery relies upon lithium ions and a variety of other materials, including iron, cobalt, copper, polyethylene oxide, and polyacrylonitrile.

    CNX_Chem_01_02_CellPhone.jpg
    Figure 1.13
    Almost one-third of naturally occurring elements are used to make a cell phone. (credit: modification of work by John Taylor)

    Chemistry End of Chapter Exercises

    Exercise 1.

    Why do we use an object's mass, rather than its weight, to indicate the amount of matter it contains?

    What properties distinguish solids from liquids? Liquids from gases? Solids from gases?

    Liquids can change their shape (flow); solids can’t. Gases can undergo large volume changes as pressure changes; liquids do not. Gases flow and change volume; solids do not.
    Exercise 3.

    How does a heterogeneous mixture differ from a homogeneous mixture? How are they similar?

    How does a homogeneous mixture differ from a pure substance? How are they similar?

    The mixture can have a variety of compositions; a pure substance has a definite composition. Both have the same composition from point to point.
    Exercise 5.

    How does an element differ from a compound? How are they similar?

    How do molecules of elements and molecules of compounds differ? In what ways are they similar?

    Molecules of elements contain only one type of atom; molecules of compounds contain two or more types of atoms. They are similar in that both are comprised of two or more atoms chemically bonded together.
    Exercise 7.

    How does an atom differ from a molecule? In what ways are they similar?

    Many of the items you purchase are mixtures of pure compounds. Select three of these commercial products and prepare a list of the ingredients that are pure compounds.

    Answers will vary. Sample answer: Gatorade contains water, sugar, dextrose, citric acid, salt, sodium chloride, monopotassium phosphate, and sucrose acetate isobutyrate.
    Exercise 9.

    Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:

    (a) copper

    (b) water

    (c) nitrogen

    (d) sulfur

    (e) air

    (f) sucrose

    (g) a substance composed of molecules each of which contains two iodine atoms

    (h) gasoline

    Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:

    (a) iron

    (b) oxygen

    (c) mercury oxide

    (d) pancake syrup

    (e) carbon dioxide

    (f) a substance composed of molecules each of which contains one hydrogen atom and one chlorine atom

    (g) baking soda

    (h) baking powder

    (a) element; (b) element; (c) compound; (d) mixture, (e) compound; (f) compound; (g) compound; (h) mixture
    Exercise 11.

    A sulfur atom and a sulfur molecule are not identical. What is the difference?

    How are the molecules in oxygen gas, the molecules in hydrogen gas, and water molecules similar? How do they differ?

    In each case, a molecule consists of two or more combined atoms. They differ in that the types of atoms change from one substance to the next.
    Exercise 13.

    We refer to astronauts in space as weightless, but not without mass. Why?

    As we drive an automobile, we don't think about the chemicals consumed and produced. Prepare a list of the principal chemicals consumed and produced during the operation of an automobile.

    Gasoline (a mixture of compounds), oxygen, and to a lesser extent, nitrogen are consumed. Carbon dioxide and water are the principal products. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides are produced in lesser amounts.
    Exercise 15.

    Matter is everywhere around us. Make a list by name of fifteen different kinds of matter that you encounter every day. Your list should include (and label at least one example of each) the following: a solid, a liquid, a gas, an element, a compound, a homogenous mixture, a heterogeneous mixture, and a pure substance.

    When elemental iron corrodes it combines with oxygen in the air to ultimately form red brown iron(III) oxide which we call rust. (a) If a shiny iron nail with an initial mass of 23.2 g is weighed after being coated in a layer of rust, would you expect the mass to have increased, decreased, or remained the same? Explain. (b) If the mass of the iron nail increases to 24.1 g, what mass of oxygen combined with the iron?

    (a) Increased as it would have combined with oxygen in the air thus increasing the amount of matter and therefore the mass. (b) 0.9 g
    Exercise 17.

    As stated in the text, convincing examples that demonstrate the law of conservation of matter outside of the laboratory are few and far between. Indicate whether the mass would increase, decrease, or stay the same for the following scenarios where chemical reactions take place:

    (a) Exactly one pound of bread dough is placed in a baking tin. The dough is cooked in an oven at 350 °F releasing a wonderful aroma of freshly baked bread during the cooking process. Is the mass of the baked loaf less than, greater than, or the same as the one pound of original dough? Explain.

    (b) When magnesium burns in air a white flaky ash of magnesium oxide is produced. Is the mass of magnesium oxide less than, greater than, or the same as the original piece of magnesium? Explain.

    (c) Antoine Lavoisier, the French scientist credited with first stating the law of conservation of matter, heated a mixture of tin and air in a sealed flask to produce tin oxide. Did the mass of the sealed flask and contents decrease, increase, or remain the same after the heating?

    Yeast converts glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide during anaerobic fermentation as depicted in the simple chemical equation here:

    ()_autogen-svg2png-0004.png

    (a) If 200.0 g of glucose is fully converted, what will be the total mass of ethanol and carbon dioxide produced?

    (b) If the fermentation is carried out in an open container, would you expect the mass of the container and contents after fermentation to be less than, greater than, or the same as the mass of the container and contents before fermentation? Explain.

    (c) If 97.7 g of carbon dioxide is produced, what mass of ethanol is produced?

    (a) 200.0 g; (b) The mass of the container and contents would decrease as carbon dioxide is a gaseous product and would leave the container. (c) 102.3 g

    1.2Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks*

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    • Define matter and elements

    • Describe the interrelationship between protons, neutrons, and electrons

    • Compare the ways in which electrons can be donated or shared between atoms

    • Explain the ways in which naturally occurring elements combine to create molecules, cells, tissues, organ systems, and organisms

    At its most fundamental level, life is made up of matter. Matter is any substance that occupies space and has mass. Elements are unique forms of matter with specific chemical and physical properties that cannot be broken down into smaller substances by ordinary chemical reactions. There are 118 elements, but only 92 occur naturally. The remaining elements are synthesized in laboratories and are unstable.

    Each element is designated by its chemical symbol, which is a single capital letter or, when the first letter is already “taken” by another element, a combination of two letters. Some elements follow the English term for the element, such as C for carbon and Ca for calcium. Other elements’ chemical symbols derive from their Latin names; for example, the symbol for sodium is Na, referring to natrium, the Latin word for sodium.

    The four elements common to all living organisms are oxygen (O), carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N). In the non-living world, elements are found in different proportions, and some elements common to living organisms are relatively rare on the earth as a whole, as shown in Table 1.2. For example, the atmosphere is rich in nitrogen and oxygen but contains little carbon and hydrogen, while the earth’s crust, although it contains oxygen and a small amount of hydrogen, has little nitrogen and carbon. In spite of their differences in abundance, all elements and the chemical reactions between them obey the same chemical and physical laws regardless of whether they are a part of the living or non-living world.

    Table 1.2.
    Approximate Percentage of Elements in Living Organisms (Humans) Compared to the Non-living World
    ElementLife (Humans)AtmosphereEarth’s Crust
    Oxygen (O)65%21%46%
    Carbon (C)18%tracetrace
    Hydrogen (H)10%trace0.1%
    Nitrogen (N)3%78%trace

    The Structure of the Atom

    To understand how elements come together, we must first discuss the smallest component or building block of an element, the atom. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains all of the chemical properties of an element. For example, one gold atom has all of the properties of gold in that it is a solid metal at room temperature. A gold coin is simply a very large number of gold atoms molded into the shape of a coin and containing small amounts of other elements known as impurities. Gold atoms cannot be broken down into anything smaller while still retaining the properties of gold.

    An atom is composed of two regions: the nucleus, which is in the center of the atom and contains protons and neutrons, and the outermost region of the atom which holds its electrons in orbit around the nucleus, as illustrated in Figure 1.14. Atoms contain protons, electrons, and neutrons, among other subatomic particles. The only exception is hydrogen (H), which is made of one proton and one electron with no neutrons.

    Figure_02_01_01.jpg
    Figure 1.14
    Elements, such as helium, depicted here, are made up of atoms. Atoms are made up of protons and neutrons located within the nucleus, with electrons in orbitals surrounding the nucleus.

    Protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass, about 1.67 × 10-24 grams. Scientists arbitrarily define this amount of mass as one atomic mass unit (amu) or one Dalton, as shown in Table 1.3. Although similar in mass, protons and neutrons differ in their electric charge. A proton is positively charged whereas a neutron is uncharged. Therefore, the number of neutrons in an atom contributes significantly to its mass, but not to its charge. Electrons are much smaller in mass than protons, weighing only 9.11 × 10-28 grams, or about 1/1800 of an atomic mass unit. Hence, they do not contribute much to an element’s overall atomic mass. Therefore, when considering atomic mass, it is customary to ignore the mass of any electrons and calculate the atom’s mass based on the number of protons and neutrons alone. Although not significant contributors to mass, electrons do contribute greatly to the atom’s charge, as each electron has a negative charge equal to the positive charge of a proton. In uncharged, neutral atoms, the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus is equal to the number of protons inside the nucleus. In these atoms, the positive and negative charges cancel each other out, leading to an atom with no net charge.

    Accounting for the sizes of protons, neutrons, and electrons, most of the volume of an atom—greater than 99 percent—is, in fact, empty space. With all this empty space, one might ask why so-called solid objects do not just pass through one another. The reason they do not is that the electrons that surround all atoms are negatively charged and negative charges repel each other.

    Table 1.3.
    Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
     ChargeMass (amu)Location
    Proton+11nucleus
    Neutron01nucleus
    Electron–10orbitals

    Atomic Number and Mass

    Atoms of each element contain a characteristic number of protons and electrons. The number of protons determines an element’s atomic number and is used to distinguish one element from another. The number of neutrons is variable, resulting in isotopes, which are different forms of the same atom that vary only in the number of neutrons they possess. Together, the number of protons and the number of neutrons determine an element’s mass number, as illustrated in Figure 1.15. Note that the small contribution of mass from electrons is disregarded in calculating the mass number. This approximation of mass can be used to easily calculate how many neutrons an element has by simply subtracting the number of protons from the mass number. Since an element’s isotopes will have slightly different mass numbers, scientists also determine the atomic mass, which is the calculated mean of the mass number for its naturally occurring isotopes. Often, the resulting number contains a fraction. For example, the atomic mass of chlorine (Cl) is 35.45 because chlorine is composed of several isotopes, some (the majority) with atomic mass 35 (17 protons and 18 neutrons) and some with atomic mass 37 (17 protons and 20 neutrons).

    Art Connection
    Figure_02_01_02.png
    Figure 1.15
    Carbon has an atomic number of six, and two stable isotopes with mass numbers of twelve and thirteen, respectively. Its relative atomic mass is 12.011

    How many neutrons do carbon-12 and carbon-13 have, respectively?

    Isotopes

    Isotopes are different forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. Some elements—such as carbon, potassium, and uranium—have naturally occurring isotopes. Carbon-12 contains six protons, six neutrons, and six electrons; therefore, it has a mass number of 12 (six protons and six neutrons). Carbon-14 contains six protons, eight neutrons, and six electrons; its atomic mass is 14 (six protons and eight neutrons). These two alternate forms of carbon are isotopes. Some isotopes may emit neutrons, protons, and electrons, and attain a more stable atomic configuration (lower level of potential energy); these are radioactive isotopes, or radioisotopes. Radioactive decay (carbon-14 decaying to eventually become nitrogen-14) describes the energy loss that occurs when an unstable atom’s nucleus releases radiation.

    Evolution Connection

    Carbon Dating

    Carbon is normally present in the atmosphere in the form of gaseous compounds like carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon-14 (14C) is a naturally occurring radioisotope that is created in the atmosphere from atmospheric 14N (nitrogen) by the addition of a neutron and the loss of a proton because of cosmic rays. This is a continuous process, so more 14C is always being created. As a living organism incorporates 14C initially as carbon dioxide fixed in the process of photosynthesis, the relative amount of 14C in its body is equal to the concentration of 14C in the atmosphere. When an organism dies, it is no longer ingesting 14C, so the ratio between 14C and 12C will decline as 14C decays gradually to 14N by a process called beta decay—the emission of electrons or positrons. This decay gives off energy in a slow process.

    After approximately 5,730 years, half of the starting concentration of 14C will have been converted back to 14N. The time it takes for half of the original concentration of an isotope to decay back to its more stable form is called its half-life. Because the half-life of 14C is long, it is used to date formerly living objects such as old bones or wood. Comparing the ratio of the 14C concentration found in an object to the amount of 14C detected in the atmosphere, the amount of the isotope that has not yet decayed can be determined. On the basis of this amount, the age of the material, such as the pygmy mammoth shown in Figure 1.16, can be calculated with accuracy if it is not much older than about 50,000 years. Other elements have isotopes with different half lives. For example, 40K (potassium-40) has a half-life of 1.25 billion years, and 235U (Uranium 235) has a half-life of about 700 million years. Through the use of radiometric dating, scientists can study the age of fossils or other remains of extinct organisms to understand how organisms have evolved from earlier species.

    Figure_02_01_03.jpg
    Figure 1.16
    The age of carbon-containing remains less than about 50,000 years old, such as this pygmy mammoth, can be determined using carbon dating. (credit: Bill Faulkner, NPS)
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    The Periodic Table

    The different elements are organized and displayed in the periodic table. Devised by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907) in 1869, the table groups elements that, although unique, share certain chemical properties with other elements. The properties of elements are responsible for their physical state at room temperature: they may be gases, solids, or liquids. Elements also have specific chemical reactivity, the ability to combine and to chemically bond with each other.

    In the periodic table, shown in Figure 1.17, the elements are organized and displayed according to their atomic number and are arranged in a series of rows and columns based on shared chemical and physical properties. In addition to providing the atomic number for each element, the periodic table also displays the element’s atomic mass. Looking at carbon, for example, its symbol (C) and name appear, as well as its atomic number of six (in the upper left-hand corner) and its atomic mass of 12.11.

    Figure_02_01_04.jpg
    Figure 1.17
    The periodic table shows the atomic mass and atomic number of each element. The atomic number appears above the symbol for the element and the approximate atomic mass appears below it.

    The periodic table groups elements according to chemical properties. The differences in chemical reactivity between the elements are based on the number and spatial distribution of an atom’s electrons. Atoms that chemically react and bond to each other form molecules. Molecules are simply two or more atoms chemically bonded together. Logically, when two atoms chemically bond to form a molecule, their electrons, which form the outermost region of each atom, come together first as the atoms form a chemical bond.

    Electron Shells and the Bohr Model

    It should be stressed that there is a connection between the number of protons in an element, the atomic number that distinguishes one element from another, and the number of electrons it has. In all electrically neutral atoms, the number of electrons is the same as the number of protons. Thus, each element, at least when electrically neutral, has a characteristic number of electrons equal to its atomic number.

    An early model of the atom was developed in 1913 by Danish scientist Niels Bohr (1885–1962). The Bohr model shows the atom as a central nucleus containing protons and neutrons, with the electrons in circular orbitals at specific distances from the nucleus, as illustrated in Figure 1.18. These orbits form electron shells or energy levels, which are a way of visualizing the number of electrons in the outermost shells. These energy levels are designated by a number and the symbol “n.” For example, 1n represents the first energy level located closest to the nucleus.

    Figure_02_01_05.png
    Figure 1.18
    The Bohr model was developed by Niels Bohrs in 1913. In this model, electrons exist within principal shells. An electron normally exists in the lowest energy shell available, which is the one closest to the nucleus. Energy from a photon of light can bump it up to a higher energy shell, but this situation is unstable, and the electron quickly decays back to the ground state. In the process, a photon of light is released.

    Electrons fill orbitals in a consistent order: they first fill the orbitals closest to the nucleus, then they continue to fill orbitals of increasing energy further from the nucleus. If there are multiple orbitals of equal energy, they will be filled with one electron in each energy level before a second electron is added. The electrons of the outermost energy level determine the energetic stability of the atom and its tendency to form chemical bonds with other atoms to form molecules.

    Under standard conditions, atoms fill the inner shells first, often resulting in a variable number of electrons in the outermost shell. The innermost shell has a maximum of two electrons but the next two electron shells can each have a maximum of eight electrons. This is known as the octet rule, which states, with the exception of the innermost shell, that atoms are more stable energetically when they have eight electrons in their valence shell, the outermost electron shell. Examples of some neutral atoms and their electron configurations are shown in Figure 1.19. Notice that in this Figure 1.19, helium has a complete outer electron shell, with two electrons filling its first and only shell. Similarly, neon has a complete outer 2n shell containing eight electrons. In contrast, chlorine and sodium have seven and one in their outer shells, respectively, but theoretically they would be more energetically stable if they followed the octet rule and had eight.

    Art Connection
    Figure_02_01_06.png
    Figure 1.19
    Bohr diagrams indicate how many electrons fill each principal shell. Group 18 elements (helium, neon, and argon are shown) have a full outer, or valence, shell. A full valence shell is the most stable electron configuration. Elements in other groups have partially filled valence shells and gain or lose electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration.

    An atom may give, take, or share electrons with another atom to achieve a full valence shell, the most stable electron configuration. Looking at this figure, how many electrons do elements in group 1 need to lose in order to achieve a stable electron configuration? How many electrons do elements in groups 14 and 17 need to gain to achieve a stable configuration?

    Understanding that the organization of the periodic table is based on the total number of protons (and electrons) helps us know how electrons are distributed among the outer shell. The periodic table is arranged in columns and rows based on the number of electrons and where these electrons are located. Take a closer look at the some of the elements in the table’s far right column in Figure 1.17. The group 18 atoms helium (He), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) all have filled outer electron shells, making it unnecessary for them to share electrons with other atoms to attain stability; they are highly stable as single atoms. Their non-reactivity has resulted in their being named the inert gases (or noble gases). Compare this to the group 1 elements in the left-hand column. These elements, including hydrogen (H), lithium (Li), and sodium (Na), all have one electron in their outermost shells. That means that they can achieve a stable configuration and a filled outer shell by donating or sharing one electron with another atom or a molecule such as water. Hydrogen will donate or share its electron to achieve this configuration, while lithium and sodium will donate their electron to become stable. As a result of losing a negatively charged electron, they become positively charged ions. Group 17 elements, including fluorine and chlorine, have seven electrons in their outmost shells, so they tend to fill this shell with an electron from other atoms or molecules, making them negatively charged ions. Group 14 elements, of which carbon is the most important to living systems, have four electrons in their outer shell allowing them to make several covalent bonds (discussed below) with other atoms. Thus, the columns of the periodic table represent the potential shared state of these elements’ outer electron shells that is responsible for their similar chemical characteristics.

    Electron Orbitals

    Although useful to explain the reactivity and chemical bonding of certain elements, the Bohr model of the atom does not accurately reflect how electrons are spatially distributed surrounding the nucleus. They do not circle the nucleus like the earth orbits the sun, but are found in electron orbitals. These relatively complex shapes result from the fact that electrons behave not just like particles, but also like waves. Mathematical equations from quantum mechanics known as wave functions can predict within a certain level of probability where an electron might be at any given time. The area where an electron is most likely to be found is called its orbital.

    Recall that the Bohr model depicts an atom’s electron shell configuration. Within each electron shell are subshells, and each subshell has a specified number of orbitals containing electrons. While it is impossible to calculate exactly where an electron is located, scientists know that it is most probably located within its orbital path. Subshells are designated by the letter s, p, d, and f. The s subshell is spherical in shape and has one orbital. Principal shell 1n has only a single s orbital, which can hold two electrons. Principal shell 2n has one s and one p subshell, and can hold a total of eight electrons. The p subshell has three dumbbell-shaped orbitals, as illustrated in Figure 1.20. Subshells d and f have more complex shapes and contain five and seven orbitals, respectively. These are not shown in the illustration. Principal shell 3n has s, p, and d subshells and can hold 18 electrons. Principal shell 4n has s, p, d and f orbitals and can hold 32 electrons. Moving away from the nucleus, the number of electrons and orbitals found in the energy levels increases. Progressing from one atom to the next in the periodic table, the electron structure can be worked out by fitting an extra electron into the next available orbital.

    Figure_02_01_07.jpg
    Figure 1.20
    The s subshells are shaped like spheres. Both the 1n and 2n principal shells have an s orbital, but the size of the sphere is larger in the 2n orbital. Each sphere is a single orbital. p subshells are made up of three dumbbell-shaped orbitals. Principal shell 2n has a p subshell, but shell 1 does not.

    The closest orbital to the nucleus, called the 1s orbital, can hold up to two electrons. This orbital is equivalent to the innermost electron shell of the Bohr model of the atom. It is called the 1s orbital because it is spherical around the nucleus. The 1s orbital is the closest orbital to the nucleus, and it is always filled first, before any other orbital can be filled. Hydrogen has one electron; therefore, it has only one spot within the 1s orbital occupied. This is designated as 1s1, where the superscripted 1 refers to the one electron within the 1s orbital. Helium has two electrons; therefore, it can completely fill the 1s orbital with its two electrons. This is designated as 1s2, referring to the two electrons of helium in the 1s orbital. On the periodic table Figure 1.17, hydrogen and helium are the only two elements in the first row (period); this is because they only have electrons in their first shell, the 1s orbital. Hydrogen and helium are the only two elements that have the 1s and no other electron orbitals in the electrically neutral state.

    The second electron shell may contain eight electrons. This shell contains another spherical s orbital and three “dumbbell” shaped p orbitals, each of which can hold two electrons, as shown in Figure 1.20. After the 1s orbital is filled, the second electron shell is filled, first filling its 2s orbital and then its three p orbitals. When filling the p orbitals, each takes a single electron; once each p orbital has an electron, a second may be added. Lithium (Li) contains three electrons that occupy the first and second shells. Two electrons fill the 1s orbital, and the third electron then fills the 2s orbital. Its electron configuration is 1s22s1. Neon (Ne), on the other hand, has a total of ten electrons: two are in its innermost 1s orbital and eight fill its second shell (two each in the 2s and three p orbitals); thus, it is an inert gas and energetically stable as a single atom that will rarely form a chemical bond with other atoms. Larger elements have additional orbitals, making up the third electron shell. While the concepts of electron shells and orbitals are closely related, orbitals provide a more accurate depiction of the electron configuration of an atom because the orbital model specifies the different shapes and special orientations of all the places that electrons may occupy.

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    Chemical Reactions and Molecules

    All elements are most stable when their outermost shell is filled with electrons according to the octet rule. This is because it is energetically favorable for atoms to be in that configuration and it makes them stable. However, since not all elements have enough electrons to fill their outermost shells, atoms form chemical bonds with other atoms thereby obtaining the electrons they need to attain a stable electron configuration. When two or more atoms chemically bond with each other, the resultant chemical structure is a molecule. The familiar water molecule, H2O, consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom; these bond together to form water, as illustrated in Figure 1.21. Atoms can form molecules by donating, accepting, or sharing electrons to fill their outer shells.

    Figure_02_01_08.jpg
    Figure 1.21
    Two or more atoms may bond with each other to form a molecule. When two hydrogens and an oxygen share electrons via covalent bonds, a water molecule is formed.

    Chemical reactions occur when two or more atoms bond together to form molecules or when bonded atoms are broken apart. The substances used in the beginning of a chemical reaction are called the reactants (usually found on the left side of a chemical equation), and the substances found at the end of the reaction are known as the products (usually found on the right side of a chemical equation). An arrow is typically drawn between the reactants and products to indicate the direction of the chemical reaction; this direction is not always a “one-way street.” For the creation of the water molecule shown above, the chemical equation would be:

    (1.1) 2H + O →  H 2 O

    An example of a simple chemical reaction is the breaking down of hydrogen peroxide molecules, each of which consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to two oxygen atoms (H2O2). The reactant hydrogen peroxide is broken down into water, containing one oxygen atom bound to two hydrogen atoms (H2O), and oxygen, which consists of two bonded oxygen atoms (O2). In the equation below, the reaction includes two hydrogen peroxide molecules and two water molecules. This is an example of a balanced chemical equation, wherein the number of atoms of each element is the same on each side of the equation. According to the law of conservation of matter, the number of atoms before and after a chemical reaction should be equal, such that no atoms are, under normal circumstances, created or destroyed.

    (1.2) 2H 2 O2  (hydrogen peroxide) →  2H 2 O (water) + O 2  (oxygen)

    Even though all of the reactants and products of this reaction are molecules (each atom remains bonded to at least one other atom), in this reaction only hydrogen peroxide and water are representatives of compounds: they contain atoms of more than one type of element. Molecular oxygen, on the other hand, as shown in Figure 1.22,consists of two doubly bonded oxygen atoms and is not classified as a compound but as a mononuclear molecule.

    Figure_02_01_09.jpg
    Figure 1.22
    The oxygen atoms in an O2 molecule are joined by a double bond.

    Some chemical reactions, such as the one shown above, can proceed in one direction until the reactants are all used up. The equations that describe these reactions contain a unidirectional arrow and are irreversible. Reversible reactions are those that can go in either direction. In reversible reactions, reactants are turned into products, but when the concentration of product goes beyond a certain threshold (characteristic of the particular reaction), some of these products will be converted back into reactants; at this point, the designations of products and reactants are reversed. This back and forth continues until a certain relative balance between reactants and products occurs—a state called equilibrium. These situations of reversible reactions are often denoted by a chemical equation with a double headed arrow pointing towards both the reactants and products.

    For example, in human blood, excess hydrogen ions (H+) bind to bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) forming an equilibrium state with carbonic acid (H2CO3). If carbonic acid were added to this system, some of it would be converted to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.

    (1.3) HCO 3 + H + ↔ H 2 CO 3

    In biological reactions, however, equilibrium is rarely obtained because the concentrations of the reactants or products or both are constantly changing, often with a product of one reaction being a reactant for another. To return to the example of excess hydrogen ions in the blood, the formation of carbonic acid will be the major direction of the reaction. However, the carbonic acid can also leave the body as carbon dioxide gas (via exhalation) instead of being converted back to bicarbonate ion, thus driving the reaction to the right by the chemical law known as law of mass action. These reactions are important for maintaining the homeostasis of our blood.

    (1.4) HCO 3  + H +   ↔  H 2 CO 3  ↔  CO 2  + H 2 O

    Ions and Ionic Bonds

    Some atoms are more stable when they gain or lose an electron (or possibly two) and form ions. This fills their outermost electron shell and makes them energetically more stable. Because the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons, each ion has a net charge. Cations are positive ions that are formed by losing electrons. Negative ions are formed by gaining electrons and are called anions. Anions are designated by their elemental name being altered to end in “-ide”: the anion of chlorine is called chloride, and the anion of sulfur is called sulfide, for example.

    This movement of electrons from one element to another is referred to as electron transfer. As Figure 1.23 illustrates, sodium (Na) only has one electron in its outer electron shell. It takes less energy for sodium to donate that one electron than it does to accept seven more electrons to fill the outer shell. If sodium loses an electron, it now has 11 protons, 11 neutrons, and only 10 electrons, leaving it with an overall charge of +1. It is now referred to as a sodium ion. Chlorine (Cl) in its lowest energy state (called the ground state) has seven electrons in its outer shell. Again, it is more energy-efficient for chlorine to gain one electron than to lose seven. Therefore, it tends to gain an electron to create an ion with 17 protons, 17 neutrons, and 18 electrons, giving it a net negative (–1) charge. It is now referred to as a chloride ion. In this example, sodium will donate its one electron to empty its shell, and chlorine will accept that electron to fill its shell. Both ions now satisfy the octet rule and have complete outermost shells. Because the number of electrons is no longer equal to the number of protons, each is now an ion and has a +1 (sodium cation) or –1 (chloride anion) charge. Note that these transactions can normally only take place simultaneously: in order for a sodium atom to lose an electron, it must be in the presence of a suitable recipient like a chlorine atom.

    Figure_02_01_10.jpg
    Figure 1.23
    In the formation of an ionic compound, metals lose electrons and nonmetals gain electrons to achieve an octet.

    Ionic bonds are formed between ions with opposite charges. For instance, positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged chloride ions bond together to make crystals of sodium chloride, or table salt, creating a crystalline molecule with zero net charge.

    Certain salts are referred to in physiology as electrolytes (including sodium, potassium, and calcium), ions necessary for nerve impulse conduction, muscle contractions and water balance. Many sports drinks and dietary supplements provide these ions to replace those lost from the body via sweating during exercise.

    Covalent Bonds and Other Bonds and Interactions

    Another way the octet rule can be satisfied is by the sharing of electrons between atoms to form covalent bonds. These bonds are stronger and much more common than ionic bonds in the molecules of living organisms. Covalent bonds are commonly found in carbon-based organic molecules, such as our DNA and proteins. Covalent bonds are also found in inorganic molecules like H2O, CO2, and O2. One, two, or three pairs of electrons may be shared, making single, double, and triple bonds, respectively. The more covalent bonds between two atoms, the stronger their connection. Thus, triple bonds are the strongest.

    The strength of different levels of covalent bonding is one of the main reasons living organisms have a difficult time in acquiring nitrogen for use in constructing their molecules, even though molecular nitrogen, N2, is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. Molecular nitrogen consists of two nitrogen atoms triple bonded to each other and, as with all molecules, the sharing of these three pairs of electrons between the two nitrogen atoms allows for the filling of their outer electron shells, making the molecule more stable than the individual nitrogen atoms. This strong triple bond makes it difficult for living systems to break apart this nitrogen in order to use it as constituents of proteins and DNA.

    The formation of water molecules provides an example of covalent bonding. The hydrogen and oxygen atoms that combine to form water molecules are bound together by covalent bonds, as shown in Figure 1.21. The electron from the hydrogen splits its time between the incomplete outer shell of the hydrogen atoms and the incomplete outer shell of the oxygen atoms. To completely fill the outer shell of oxygen, which has six electrons in its outer shell but which would be more stable with eight, two electrons (one from each hydrogen atom) are needed: hence the well-known formula H2O. The electrons are shared between the two elements to fill the outer shell of each, making both elements more stable.

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    Polar Covalent Bonds

    There are two types of covalent bonds: polar and nonpolar. In a polar covalent bond, shown in Figure 1.24, the electrons are unequally shared by the atoms and are attracted more to one nucleus than the other. Because of the unequal distribution of electrons between the atoms of different elements, a slightly positive (δ+) or slightly negative (δ–) charge develops. This partial charge is an important property of water and accounts for many of its characteristics.

    Water is a polar molecule, with the hydrogen atoms acquiring a partial positive charge and the oxygen a partial negative charge. This occurs because the nucleus of the oxygen atom is more attractive to the electrons of the hydrogen atoms than the hydrogen nucleus is to the oxygen’s electrons. Thus oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen and the shared electrons spend more time in the vicinity of the oxygen nucleus than they do near the nucleus of the hydrogen atoms, giving the atoms of oxygen and hydrogen slightly negative and positive charges, respectively. Another way of stating this is that the probability of finding a shared electron near an oxygen nucleus is more likely than finding it near a hydrogen nucleus. Either way, the atom’s relative electronegativity contributes to the development of partial charges whenever one element is significantly more electronegative than the other, and the charges generated by these polar bonds may then be used for the formation of hydrogen bonds based on the attraction of opposite partial charges. (Hydrogen bonds, which are discussed in detail below, are weak bonds between slightly positively charged hydrogen atoms to slightly negatively charged atoms in other molecules.) Since macromolecules often have atoms within them that differ in electronegativity, polar bonds are often present in organic molecules.

    Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

    Nonpolar covalent bonds form between two atoms of the same element or between different elements that share electrons equally. For example, molecular oxygen (O2) is nonpolar because the electrons will be equally distributed between the two oxygen atoms.

    Another example of a nonpolar covalent bond is methane (CH4), also shown in Figure 1.24. Carbon has four electrons in its outermost shell and needs four more to fill it. It gets these four from four hydrogen atoms, each atom providing one, making a stable outer shell of eight electrons. Carbon and hydrogen do not have the same electronegativity but are similar; thus, nonpolar bonds form. The hydrogen atoms each need one electron for their outermost shell, which is filled when it contains two electrons. These elements share the electrons equally among the carbons and the hydrogen atoms, creating a nonpolar covalent molecule.

    Figure_02_01_11.jpg
    Figure 1.24
    Whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar depends both on bond type and molecular shape. Both water and carbon dioxide have polar covalent bonds, but carbon dioxide is linear, so the partial charges on the molecule cancel each other out.

    Hydrogen Bonds and Van Der Waals Interactions

    Ionic and covalent bonds between elements require energy to break. Ionic bonds are not as strong as covalent, which determines their behavior in biological systems. However, not all bonds are ionic or covalent bonds. Weaker bonds can also form between molecules. Two weak bonds that occur frequently are hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. Without these two types of bonds, life as we know it would not exist. Hydrogen bonds provide many of the critical, life-sustaining properties of water and also stabilize the structures of proteins and DNA, the building block of cells.

    When polar covalent bonds containing hydrogen form, the hydrogen in that bond has a slightly positive charge because hydrogen’s electron is pulled more strongly toward the other element and away from the hydrogen. Because the hydrogen is slightly positive, it will be attracted to neighboring negative charges. When this happens, a weak interaction occurs between the δ+of the hydrogen from one molecule and the δ– charge on the more electronegative atoms of another molecule, usually oxygen or nitrogen, or within the same molecule. This interaction is called a hydrogen bond. This type of bond is common and occurs regularly between water molecules. Individual hydrogen bonds are weak and easily broken; however, they occur in very large numbers in water and in organic polymers, creating a major force in combination. Hydrogen bonds are also responsible for zipping together the DNA double helix.

    Like hydrogen bonds, van der Waals interactions are weak attractions or interactions between molecules. Van der Waals attractions can occur between any two or more molecules and are dependent on slight fluctuations of the electron densities, which are not always symmetrical around an atom. For these attractions to happen, the molecules need to be very close to one another. These bonds—along with ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds—contribute to the three-dimensional structure of the proteins in our cells that is necessary for their proper function.

    Career Connection

    Pharmaceutical Chemist

    Pharmaceutical chemists are responsible for the development of new drugs and trying to determine the mode of action of both old and new drugs. They are involved in every step of the drug development process. Drugs can be found in the natural environment or can be synthesized in the laboratory. In many cases, potential drugs found in nature are changed chemically in the laboratory to make them safer and more effective, and sometimes synthetic versions of drugs substitute for the version found in nature.

    After the initial discovery or synthesis of a drug, the chemist then develops the drug, perhaps chemically altering it, testing it to see if the drug is toxic, and then designing methods for efficient large-scale production. Then, the process of getting the drug approved for human use begins. In the United States, drug approval is handled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and involves a series of large-scale experiments using human subjects to make sure the drug is not harmful and effectively treats the condition it aims to treat. This process often takes several years and requires the participation of physicians and scientists, in addition to chemists, to complete testing and gain approval.

    An example of a drug that was originally discovered in a living organism is Paclitaxel (Taxol), an anti-cancer drug used to treat breast cancer. This drug was discovered in the bark of the pacific yew tree. Another example is aspirin, originally isolated from willow tree bark. Finding drugs often means testing hundreds of samples of plants, fungi, and other forms of life to see if any biologically active compounds are found within them. Sometimes, traditional medicine can give modern medicine clues to where an active compound can be found. For example, the use of willow bark to make medicine has been known for thousands of years, dating back to ancient Egypt. It was not until the late 1800s, however, that the aspirin molecule, known as acetylsalicylic acid, was purified and marketed for human use.

    Occasionally, drugs developed for one use are found to have unforeseen effects that allow these drugs to be used in other, unrelated ways. For example, the drug minoxidil (Rogaine) was originally developed to treat high blood pressure. When tested on humans, it was noticed that individuals taking the drug would grow new hair. Eventually the drug was marketed to men and women with baldness to restore lost hair.

    The career of the pharmaceutical chemist may involve detective work, experimentation, and drug development, all with the goal of making human beings healthier.

    1.3The Periodic Table*

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    • State the periodic law and explain the organization of elements in the periodic table

    • Predict the general properties of elements based on their location within the periodic table

    • Identify metals, nonmetals, and metalloids by their properties and/or location on the periodic table

    As early chemists worked to purify ores and discovered more elements, they realized that various elements could be grouped together by their similar chemical behaviors. One such grouping includes lithium (Li), sodium (Na), and potassium (K): These elements all are shiny, conduct heat and electricity well, and have similar chemical properties. A second grouping includes calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba), which also are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, and have chemical properties in common. However, the specific properties of these two groupings are notably different from each other. For example: Li, Na, and K are much more reactive than are Ca, Sr, and Ba; Li, Na, and K form compounds with oxygen in a ratio of two of their atoms to one oxygen atom, whereas Ca, Sr, and Ba form compounds with one of their atoms to one oxygen atom. Fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I) also exhibit similar properties to each other, but these properties are drastically different from those of any of the elements above.

    Dimitri Mendeleev in Russia (1869) and Lothar Meyer in Germany (1870) independently recognized that there was a periodic relationship among the properties of the elements known at that time. Both published tables with the elements arranged according to increasing atomic mass. But Mendeleev went one step further than Meyer: He used his table to predict the existence of elements that would have the properties similar to aluminum and silicon, but were yet unknown. The discoveries of gallium (1875) and germanium (1886) provided great support for Mendeleev’s work. Although Mendeleev and Meyer had a long dispute over priority, Mendeleev’s contributions to the development of the periodic table are now more widely recognized (Figure 1.25).

    CNX_Chem_02_05_Mendeleev.jpg
    Figure 1.25
    (a) Dimitri Mendeleev is widely credited with creating (b) the first periodic table of the elements. (credit a: modification of work by Serge Lachinov; credit b: modification of work by “Den fjättrade ankan”/Wikimedia Commons)

    By the twentieth century, it became apparent that the periodic relationship involved atomic numbers rather than atomic masses. The modern statement of this relationship, the periodic law, is as follows: the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. A modern periodic table arranges the elements in increasing order of their atomic numbers and groups atoms with similar properties in the same vertical column (Figure 1.26). Each box represents an element and contains its atomic number, symbol, average atomic mass, and (sometimes) name. The elements are arranged in seven horizontal rows, called periods or series, and 18 vertical columns, called groups. Groups are labeled at the top of each column. In the United States, the labels traditionally were numerals with capital letters. However, IUPAC recommends that the numbers 1 through 18 be used, and these labels are more common. For the table to fit on a single page, parts of two of the rows, a total of 14 columns, are usually written below the main body of the table.

    CNX_Chem_02_05_PerTable1.jpg
    Figure 1.26
    Elements in the periodic table are organized according to their properties.

    Many elements differ dramatically in their chemical and physical properties, but some elements are similar in their behaviors. For example, many elements appear shiny, are malleable (able to be deformed without breaking) and ductile (can be drawn into wires), and conduct heat and electricity well. Other elements are not shiny, malleable, or ductile, and are poor conductors of heat and electricity. We can sort the elements into large classes with common properties: metals (elements that are shiny, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity—shaded yellow); nonmetals (elements that appear dull, poor conductors of heat and electricity—shaded green); and metalloids (elements that conduct heat and electricity moderately well, and possess some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals—shaded purple).

    The elements can also be classified into the main-group elements (or representative elements) in the columns labeled 1, 2, and 13–18; the transition metals in the columns labeled 3–12; and inner transition metals in the two rows at the bottom of the table (the top-row elements are called lanthanides and the bottom-row elements are actinides; Figure 1.27). The elements can be subdivided further by more specific properties, such as the composition of the compounds they form. For example, the elements in group 1 (the first column) form compounds that consist of one atom of the element and one atom of hydrogen. These elements (except hydrogen) are known as alkali metals, and they all have similar chemical properties. The elements in group 2 (the second column) form compounds consisting of one atom of the element and two atoms of hydrogen: These are called alkaline earth metals, with similar properties among members of that group. Other groups with specific names are the pnictogens (group 15), chalcogens (group 16), halogens (group 17), and the noble gases (group 18, also known as inert gases). The groups can also be referred to by the first element of the group: For example, the chalcogens can be called the oxygen group or oxygen family. Hydrogen is a unique, nonmetallic element with properties similar to both group 1 and group 17 elements. For that reason, hydrogen may be shown at the top of both groups, or by itself.

    CNX_Chem_02_05_PerTable2.jpg
    Figure 1.27
    The periodic table organizes elements with similar properties into groups.
    Example 1.1

    Naming Groups of Elements

    Atoms of each of the following elements are essential for life. Give the group name for the following elements:

    (a) chlorine

    (b) calcium

    (c) sodium

    (d) sulfur

    Solution

    The family names are as follows:

    (a) halogen

    (b) alkaline earth metal

    (c) alkali metal

    (d) chalcogen

    Check Your Learning

    Give the group name for each of the following elements:

    (a) krypton

    (b) selenium

    (c) barium

    (d) lithium

    Answer:

    (a) noble gas; (b) chalcogen; (c) alkaline earth metal; (d) alkali metal

    In studying the periodic table, you might have noticed something about the atomic masses of some of the elements. Element 43 (technetium), element 61 (promethium), and most of the elements with atomic number 84 (polonium) and higher have their atomic mass given in square brackets. This is done for elements that consist entirely of unstable, radioactive isotopes (you will learn more about radioactivity in the nuclear chemistry chapter). An average atomic weight cannot be determined for these elements because their radioisotopes may vary significantly in relative abundance, depending on the source, or may not even exist in nature. The number in square brackets is the atomic mass number (an approximate atomic mass) of the most stable isotope of that element.

    Chemistry End of Chapter Exercises

    Using the periodic table, classify each of the following elements as a metal or a nonmetal, and then further classify each as a main-group (representative) element, transition metal, or inner transition metal:

    (a) uranium

    (b) bromine

    (c) strontium

    (d) neon

    (e) gold

    (f) americium

    (g) rhodium

    (h) sulfur

    (i) carbon

    (j) potassium

    (a) metal, inner transition metal; (b) nonmetal, representative element; (c) metal, representative element; (d) nonmetal, representative element; (e) metal, transition metal; (f) metal, inner transition metal; (g) metal, transition metal; (h) nonmetal, representative element; (i) nonmetal, representative element; (j) metal, representative element
    Exercise 28.

    Using the periodic table, classify each of the following elements as a metal or a nonmetal, and then further classify each as a main-group (representative) element, transition metal, or inner transition metal:

    (a) cobalt

    (b) europium

    (c) iodine

    (d) indium

    (e) lithium

    (f) oxygen

    (h) cadmium

    (i) terbium

    (j) rhenium

    Using the periodic table, identify the lightest member of each of the following groups:

    (a) noble gases

    (b) alkaline earth metals

    (c) alkali metals

    (d) chalcogens

    (a) He; (b) Be; (c) Li; (d) O
    Exercise 30.

    Using the periodic table, identify the heaviest member of each of the following groups:

    (a) alkali metals

    (b) chalcogens

    (c) noble gases

    (d) alkaline earth metals

    Use the periodic table to give the name and symbol for each of the following elements:

    (a) the noble gas in the same period as germanium

    (b) the alkaline earth metal in the same period as selenium

    (c) the halogen in the same period as lithium

    (d) the chalcogen in the same period as cadmium

    (a) krypton, Kr; (b) calcium, Ca; (c) fluorine, F; (d) tellurium, Te
    Exercise 32.

    Use the periodic table to give the name and symbol for each of the following elements:

    (a) the halogen in the same period as the alkali metal with 11 protons

    (b) the alkaline earth metal in the same period with the neutral noble gas with 18 electrons

    (c) the noble gas in the same row as an isotope with 30 neutrons and 25 protons

    (d) the noble gas in the same period as gold

    Write a symbol for each of the following neutral isotopes. Include the atomic number and mass number for each.

    (a) the alkali metal with 11 protons and a mass number of 23

    (b) the noble gas element with 75 neutrons in its nucleus and 54 electrons in the neutral atom

    (c) the isotope with 33 protons and 40 neutrons in its nucleus

    (d) the alkaline earth metal with 88 electrons and 138 neutrons

    (a) 1123Na; (b) _autogen-svg2png-0002.png; (c) 3373As; (d) _autogen-svg2png-0004.png
    Exercise 34.

    Write a symbol for each of the following neutral isotopes. Include the atomic number and mass number for each.

    (a) the chalcogen with a mass number of 125

    (b) the halogen whose longest-lived isotope is radioactive

    (c) the noble gas, used in lighting, with 10 electrons and 10 neutrons

    (d) the lightest alkali metal with three neutrons

    Glossary

    actinide

    inner transition metal in the bottom of the bottom two rows of the periodic table

    alkali metal

    element in group 1

    alkaline earth metal

    element in group 2

    anion

    negative ion that is formed by an atom gaining one or more electrons

    atom

    smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical combination

    atom

    the smallest unit of matter that retains all of the chemical properties of an element

    atomic mass

    calculated mean of the mass number for an element’s isotopes

    atomic number

    total number of protons in an atom

    balanced chemical equation

    statement of a chemical reaction with the number of each type of atom equalized for both the products and reactants

    cation

    positive ion that is formed by an atom losing one or more electrons

    chalcogen

    element in group 16

    chemical bond

    interaction between two or more of the same or different atoms that results in the formation of molecules

    chemical reaction

    process leading to the rearrangement of atoms in molecules

    chemical reactivity

    the ability to combine and to chemically bond with each other

    compound

    pure substance that can be decomposed into two or more elements

    compound

    substance composed of molecules consisting of atoms of at least two different elements

    covalent bond

    type of strong bond formed between two of the same or different elements; forms when electrons are shared between atoms

    electrolyte

    ion necessary for nerve impulse conduction, muscle contractions and water balance

    electron

    negatively charged subatomic particle that resides outside of the nucleus in the electron orbital; lacks functional mass and has a negative charge of –1 unit

    electron configuration

    arrangement of electrons in an atom’s electron shell (for example, 1s22s22p6)

    electron orbital

    how electrons are spatially distributed surrounding the nucleus; the area where an electron is most likely to be found

    electron transfer

    movement of electrons from one element to another; important in creation of ionic bonds

    electronegativity

    ability of some elements to attract electrons (often of hydrogen atoms), acquiring partial negative charges in molecules and creating partial positive charges on the hydrogen atoms

    element

    substance that is composed of a single type of atom; a substance that cannot be decomposed by a chemical change

    element

    one of 118 unique substances that cannot be broken down into smaller substances; each element has unique properties and a specified number of protons

    equilibrium

    steady state of relative reactant and product concentration in reversible chemical reactions in a closed system

    gas

    state in which matter has neither definite volume nor shape

    group

    vertical column of the periodic table

    halogen

    element in group 17

    heterogeneous mixture

    combination of substances with a composition that varies from point to point

    homogeneous mixture

    (also, solution) combination of substances with a composition that is uniform throughout

    hydrogen bond

    weak bond between slightly positively charged hydrogen atoms to slightly negatively charged atoms in other molecules

    inert gas

    (also, noble gas) element with filled outer electron shell that is unreactive with other atoms

    inert gas

    (also, noble gas) element in group 18

    inner transition metal

    (also, lanthanide or actinide) element in the bottom two rows; if in the first row, also called lanthanide, or if in the second row, also called actinide

    ion

    atom or chemical group that does not contain equal numbers of protons and electrons

    ionic bond

    chemical bond that forms between ions with opposite charges (cations and anions)

    irreversible chemical reaction

    chemical reaction where reactants proceed uni-directionally to form products

    isotope

    one or more forms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons

    lanthanide

    inner transition metal in the top of the bottom two rows of the periodic table

    law of conservation of matter

    when matter converts from one type to another or changes form, there is no detectable change in the total amount of matter present

    law of mass action

    chemical law stating that the rate of a reaction is proportional to the concentration of the reacting substances

    liquid

    state of matter that has a definite volume but indefinite shape

    main-group element

    (also, representative element) element in columns 1, 2, and 12–18

    mass

    fundamental property indicating amount of matter

    mass number

    total number of protons and neutrons in an atom

    matter

    anything that occupies space and has mass

    matter

    anything that has mass and occupies space

    metal

    element that is shiny, malleable, good conductor of heat and electricity

    metalloid

    element that conducts heat and electricity moderately well, and possesses some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals

    mixture

    matter that can be separated into its components by physical means

    molecule

    bonded collection of two or more atoms of the same or different elements

    molecule

    two or more atoms chemically bonded together

    neutron

    uncharged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amu

    noble gas

    see inert gas

    noble gas

    (also, inert gas) element in group 18

    nonmetal

    element that appears dull, poor conductor of heat and electricity

    nonpolar covalent bond

    type of covalent bond that forms between atoms when electrons are shared equally between them

    nucleus

    core of an atom; contains protons and neutrons

    octet rule

    rule that atoms are most stable when they hold eight electrons in their outermost shells

    orbital

    region surrounding the nucleus; contains electrons

    period

    (also, series) horizontal row of the periodic table

    periodic law

    properties of the elements are periodic function of their atomic numbers.

    periodic table

    organizational chart of elements indicating the atomic number and atomic mass of each element; provides key information about the properties of the elements

    periodic table

    table of the elements that places elements with similar chemical properties close together

    plasma

    gaseous state of matter containing a large number of electrically charged atoms and/or molecules

    pnictogen

    element in group 15

    polar covalent bond

    type of covalent bond that forms as a result of unequal sharing of electrons, resulting in the creation of slightly positive and slightly negative charged regions of the molecule

    product

    molecule found on the right side of a chemical equation

    proton

    positively charged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amu and a charge of +1

    pure substance

    homogeneous substance that has a constant composition

    radioisotope

    isotope that emits radiation composed of subatomic particles to form more stable elements

    reactant

    molecule found on the left side of a chemical equation

    representative element

    (also, main-group element) element in columns 1, 2, and 12–18

    reversible chemical reaction

    chemical reaction that functions bi-directionally, where products may turn into reactants if their concentration is great enough

    series

    (also, period) horizontal row of the period table

    solid

    state of matter that is rigid, has a definite shape, and has a fairly constant volume

    transition metal

    element in columns 3–11

    valence shell

    outermost shell of an atom

    van der Waals interaction

    very weak interaction between molecules due to temporary charges attracting atoms that are very close together

    weight

    force that gravity exerts on an object

    Sections Summary

    Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. The basic building block of matter is the atom, the smallest unit of an element that can enter into combinations with atoms of the same or other elements. In many substances, atoms are combined into molecules. On earth, matter commonly exists in three states: solids, of fixed shape and volume; liquids, of variable shape but fixed volume; and gases, of variable shape and volume. Under high-temperature conditions, matter also can exist as a plasma. Most matter is a mixture: It is composed of two or more types of matter that can be present in varying amounts and can be separated by physical means. Heterogeneous mixtures vary in composition from point to point; homogeneous mixtures have the same composition from point to point. Pure substances consist of only one type of matter. A pure substance can be an element, which consists of only one type of atom and cannot be broken down by a chemical change, or a compound, which consists of two or more types of atoms.

    Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of elements. All of the 92 elements that occur naturally have unique qualities that allow them to combine in various ways to create molecules, which in turn combine to form cells, tissues, organ systems, and organisms. Atoms, which consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons, are the smallest units of an element that retain all of the properties of that element. Electrons can be transferred, shared, or cause charge disparities between atoms to create bonds, including ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds, as well as van der Waals interactions.

    The discovery of the periodic recurrence of similar properties among the elements led to the formulation of the periodic table, in which the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number in rows known as periods and columns known as groups. Elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical properties. Elements can be classified as metals, metalloids, and nonmetals, or as a main-group elements, transition metals, and inner transition metals. Groups are numbered 1–18 from left to right. The elements in group 1 are known as the alkali metals; those in group 2 are the alkaline earth metals; those in 15 are the pnictogens; those in 16 are the chalcogens; those in 17 are the halogens; and those in 18 are the noble gases.

    Art Connections

    Figure 1.15 How many neutrons do carbon-12 and carbon-13 have, respectively?

    Figure 1.15 Carbon-12 has six neutrons. Carbon-13 has seven neutrons.

    Figure 1.19 An atom may give, take, or share electrons with another atom to achieve a full valence shell, the most stable electron configuration. Looking at this figure, how many electrons do elements in group 1 need to lose in order to achieve a stable electron configuration? How many electrons do elements in groups 14 and 17 need to gain to achieve a stable configuration?

    Figure 1.19 Elements in group 1 need to lose one electron to achieve a stable electron configuration. Elements in groups 14 and 17 need to gain four and one electrons, respectively, to achieve a stable configuration.

    Multiple Choice

    If xenon has an atomic number of 54 and a mass number of 108, how many neutrons does it have?

    1. 54

    2. 27

    3. 100

    4. 108

    Atoms that vary in the number of neutrons found in their nuclei are called ________.

    1. ions

    2. neutrons

    3. neutral atoms

    4. isotopes

    Potassium has an atomic number of 19. What is its electron configuration?

    1. shells 1 and 2 are full, and shell 3 has nine electrons

    2. shells 1, 2 and 3 are full and shell 4 has three electrons

    3. shells 1, 2 and 3 are full and shell 4 has one electron

    4. shells 1, 2 and 3 are full and no other electrons are present

    Which type of bond represents a weak chemical bond?

    1. hydrogen bond

    2. atomic bond

    3. covalent bond

    4. nonpolar covalent bond

    Free Response

    What makes ionic bonds different from covalent bonds?

    Ionic bonds are created between ions. The electrons are not shared between the atoms, but rather are associated more with one ion than the other. Ionic bonds are strong bonds, but are weaker than covalent bonds, meaning it takes less energy to break an ionic bond compared with a covalent one.

    Why are hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions necessary for cells?

    Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions form weak associations between different molecules or within different regions of the same molecule. They provide the structure and shape necessary for proteins and DNA within cells so that they function properly.

    Solutions

    Figure 1.15 Carbon-12 has six neutrons. Carbon-13 has seven neutrons.

    Figure 1.19 Elements in group 1 need to lose one electron to achieve a stable electron configuration. Elements in groups 14 and 17 need to gain four and one electrons, respectively, to achieve a stable configuration.

    Ionic bonds are created between ions. The electrons are not shared between the atoms, but rather are associated more with one ion than the other. Ionic bonds are strong bonds, but are weaker than covalent bonds, meaning it takes less energy to break an ionic bond compared with a covalent one.

    Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions form weak associations between different molecules or within different regions of the same molecule. They provide the structure and shape necessary for proteins and DNA within cells so that they function properly.