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5: Molecules and Covalent Compounds

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    • 5.1: Covalent Bonds
      You have already seen examples of substances that contain covalent bonds. One substance mentioned previously was water (H₂O). You can tell from its formula that it is not an ionic compound; it is not composed of a metal and a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those of ionic compounds. A covalent bond is formed between two atoms by sharing electrons.
    • 5.2: Covalent Compounds - Formulas and Names
      The chemical formula of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its name. The name of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its chemical formula.
    • 5.3: Drawing Lewis Structures
      Some molecules must have multiple covalent bonds between atoms to satisfy the octet rule.
    • 5.4: Resonance
      Resonance structures are used when a single Lewis structure cannot fully describe the bonding; the combination of possible resonance structures is defined as a resonance hybrid, which represents the overall delocalization of electrons within the molecule. In general, molecules with multiple resonance structures will be more stable than one with fewer.
    • 5.5: Molecular Geometry- VSEPR
      Simple molecules have geometries that can be determined from VSEPR theory.
    • 5.6: Polarity of Bonds
      Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar, depending on the electronegativity difference between the atoms involved.
    • 5.7: Polarity of Molecules
      A polarity of a molecule is determined from the polarity of the covalent bonds that comprise it and from their arrangement.
    • 5.8: Contrasting Molecular and Ionic Compounds
      The physical properties of molecular compounds are often very different from those of ionic compounds.

    5: Molecules and Covalent Compounds is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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