Skip to main content
Chemistry LibreTexts

5: Molecules and Covalent Compounds

  • Page ID
    313252
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    • 5.1: Covalent Bonds
      You have already seen examples of substances that contain covalent bonds. One substance mentioned previously was water (H₂O). You can tell from its formula that it is not an ionic compound; it is not composed of a metal and a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those of ionic compounds. A covalent bond is formed between two atoms by sharing electrons.
    • 5.2: Covalent Compounds - Formulas and Names
      The chemical formula of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its name. The name of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its chemical formula.
    • 5.3: Drawing Lewis Structures
      Some molecules must have multiple covalent bonds between atoms to satisfy the octet rule.
    • 5.4: Resonance
      Resonance structures are used when a single Lewis structure cannot fully describe the bonding; the combination of possible resonance structures is defined as a resonance hybrid, which represents the overall delocalization of electrons within the molecule. In general, molecules with multiple resonance structures will be more stable than one with fewer.
    • 5.5: Molecular Geometry- VSEPR
      Simple molecules have geometries that can be determined from VSEPR theory.
    • 5.6: Polarity of Bonds
      Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar, depending on the electronegativity difference between the atoms involved.
    • 5.7: Polarity of Molecules
      A polarity of a molecule is determined from the polarity of the covalent bonds that comprise it and from their arrangement.
    • 5.8: Contrasting Molecular and Ionic Compounds
      The physical properties of molecular compounds are often very different from those of ionic compounds.


    5: Molecules and Covalent Compounds is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

    • Was this article helpful?