# 1.1: Measurements

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Skills to Develop

• Explain the process of measurement
• Identify the two basic parts of a quantity
• Describe the properties and units of length, mass, volume, density, and time
• Perform basic unit calculations and conversions in the metric and other unit systems

## An Introduction to Units From Crash Course Chemistry

Video $$\PageIndex{1}$$: Watch this video for an introduction to units for this unit

Measurements provide the macroscopic information that is the basis of most of the hypotheses, theories, and laws that describe the behavior of matter and energy in both the macroscopic and microscopic domains of chemistry. For our purposes, every measurement provides two kinds of information: the size or magnitude of the measurement (a number or quantity); and a standard of comparison for the measurement (a unit). The number and unit are explicitly represented when a quantity is written.

The number in the measurement can be represented in different ways, including decimal form and scientific notation. For example, the maximum takeoff weight of a Boeing 777-200ER airliner is 298,000 kilograms, which can also be written as 2.98 $$\times$$ 105 kg. The mass of the average mosquito is about 0.0000025 kilograms, which can be written as 2.5 $$\times$$ 10−6 kg.

Units, such as liters, pounds, and centimeters, are standards of comparison for measurements. When we buy a 2-liter bottle of a soft drink, we expect that the volume of the drink was measured, so it is two times larger than the volume that everyone agrees to be 1 liter. The meat used to prepare a 0.25-pound hamburger is measured so it weighs one-fourth as much as 1 pound. Without units, a number can be meaningless, confusing, or possibly life threatening. Suppose a doctor prescribes phenobarbital to control a patient’s seizures and states a dosage of “100” without specifying units. Not only will this be confusing to the medical professional giving the dose, but the consequences can be dire: 100 mg given three times per day can be effective as an anticonvulsant, but a single dose of 100 g is more than 10 times the lethal amount.

We usually report the results of scientific measurements in SI units, an updated version of the metric system, using the units listed in Table $$\PageIndex{1}$$. Other units can be derived from these base units. The standards for these units are fixed by international agreement, and they are called the International System of Units or SI Units (from the French, Le Système International d’Unités). SI units have been used by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) since 1964.

Table $$\PageIndex{1}$$: Base Units of the SI System
Property Measured Name of Unit Symbol of Unit
length meter m
mass kilogram kg
time second s
temperature kelvin K
electric current ampere A
amount of substance mole mol
luminous intensity candela cd

Sometimes we use units that are fractions or multiples of a base unit. Ice cream is sold in quarts (a familiar, non-SI base unit), pints (0.5 quart), or gallons (4 quarts). We also use fractions or multiples of units in the SI system, but these fractions or multiples are always powers of 10. Fractional or multiple SI units are named using a prefix and the name of the base unit. For example, a length of 1000 meters is also called a kilometer because the prefix kilo means “one thousand,” which in scientific notation is 103 (1 kilometer = 1000 m = 103 m). The prefixes used and the powers to which 10 are raised are listed in Table $$\PageIndex{2}$$.

Table $$\PageIndex{2}$$: Common Unit Prefixes
Prefix Symbol Factor Example
femto f 10−15 1 femtosecond (fs) = 1 $$\times$$ 10−15 s (0.000000000000001 s)
pico p 10−12 1 picometer (pm) = 1 $$\times$$ 10−12 m (0.000000000001 m)
nano n 10−9 4 nanograms (ng) = 4 $$\times$$ 10−9 g (0.000000004 g)
micro µ 10−6 1 microliter (μL) = 1 $$\times$$ 10−6 L (0.000001 L)
milli m 10−3 2 millimoles (mmol) = 2 $$\times$$ 10−3 mol (0.002 mol)
centi c 10−2 7 centimeters (cm) = 7 $$\times$$ 10−2 m (0.07 m)
deci d 10−1 1 deciliter (dL) = 1 $$\times$$ 10−1 L (0.1 L )
kilo k 103 1 kilometer (km) = 1 $$\times$$ 103 m (1000 m)
mega M 106 3 megahertz (MHz) = 3 $$\times$$ 106 Hz (3,000,000 Hz)
giga G 109 8 gigayears (Gyr) = 8 $$\times$$ 109 yr (8,000,000,000 Gyr)
tera T 1012 5 terawatts (TW) = 5 $$\times$$ 1012 W (5,000,000,000,000 W)

### SI Base Units

The initial units of the metric system, which eventually evolved into the SI system, were established in France during the French Revolution. The original standards for the meter and the kilogram were adopted there in 1799 and eventually by other countries. This section introduces four of the SI base units commonly used in chemistry. Other SI units will be introduced in subsequent chapters.

### Length

The standard unit of length in both the SI and original metric systems is the meter (m). A meter was originally specified as 1/10,000,000 of the distance from the North Pole to the equator. It is now defined as the distance light in a vacuum travels in 1/299,792,458 of a second. A meter is about 3 inches longer than a yard (Figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$); one meter is about 39.37 inches or 1.094 yards. Longer distances are often reported in kilometers (1 km = 1000 m = 103 m), whereas shorter distances can be reported in centimeters (1 cm = 0.01 m = 10−2 m) or millimeters (1 mm = 0.001 m = 10−3 m).

Figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$: The relative lengths of 1 m, 1 yd, 1 cm, and 1 in. are shown (not actual size), as well as comparisons of 2.54 cm and 1 in., and of 1 m and 1.094 yd.

### Mass

The standard unit of mass in the SI system is the kilogram (kg). A kilogram was originally defined as the mass of a liter of water (a cube of water with an edge length of exactly 0.1 meter). In 1889, it was redefined by a certain cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy, which was kept in France (Figure $$\PageIndex{2}$$). Any object with the same mass as this cylinder was said to have a mass of 1 kilogram (which can lead to uncertainties unacceptable to the precision of modern instrumentation). One kilogram is about 2.2 pounds. The gram (g) is exactly equal to 1/1000 of the mass of the kilogram (10−3 kg). Over the past 100 years, the IPK has lost 50 millionths of a gram - a seemingly negligible amount, but something that has caused it to be lighter - or all standard replicas to be heavier - and changing the definition of a kilogram in the process. As all balances in the world are standardized to this value, it is important that this value, itself, be standard. On May 20, 2019, a new definition will be used for the kilogram, based on the unchanging Planck's constant.1

Figure $$\PageIndex{2}$$: This replica prototype kilogram is housed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Maryland. (credit: National Institutes of Standards and Technology).

Video $$\PageIndex{2}$$: For more information on the new definition of the kilogram, check out this video!

### Time

The SI base unit of time is the second (s). Small and large time intervals can be expressed with the appropriate prefixes; for example, 3 microseconds = 0.000003 s = 3 $$\times$$ 10−6 and 5 megaseconds = 5,000,000 s = 5 $$\times$$ 106 s. Alternatively, hours, days, and years can be used.

### Derived SI Units

We can derive many units from the seven SI base units. For example, we can use the base unit of length to define a unit of volume, and the base units of mass and length to define a unit of density.

#### Volume

Volume is the measure of the amount of space occupied by an object. The standard SI unit of volume is defined by the base unit of length (Figure $$\PageIndex{3}$$). The standard volume is a cubic meter (m3), a cube with an edge length of exactly one meter. To dispense a cubic meter of water, we could build a cubic box with edge lengths of exactly one meter. This box would hold a cubic meter of water or any other substance.

A more commonly used unit of volume is derived from the decimeter (0.1 m, or 10 cm). A cube with edge lengths of exactly one decimeter contains a volume of one cubic decimeter (dm3). A liter (L) is the more common name for the cubic decimeter. One liter is about 1.06 quarts. A cubic centimeter (cm3) is the volume of a cube with an edge length of exactly one centimeter. The abbreviation cc (for cubic centimeter) is often used by health professionals. A cubic centimeter is also called a milliliter (mL) and is 1/1000 of a liter.

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Figure $$\PageIndex{3}$$: (a) The relative volumes are shown for cubes of 1 m3, 1 dm3 (1 L), and 1 cm3 (1 mL) (not to scale). (b) The diameter of a dime is compared relative to the edge length of a 1-cm3 (1-mL) cube.

#### Density

We use the mass and volume of a substance to determine its density. Thus, the units of density are defined by the base units of mass and length.

The density of a substance is the ratio of the mass of a sample of the substance to its volume. The SI unit for density is the kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3). For many situations, however, this as an inconvenient unit, and we often use grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) for the densities of solids and liquids, and grams per liter (g/L) for gases. Although there are exceptions, most liquids and solids have densities that range from about 0.7 g/cm3 (the density of gasoline) to 19 g/cm3 (the density of gold). The density of air is about 1.2 g/L. Table $$\PageIndex{3}$$ shows the densities of some common substances.

Table $$\PageIndex{3}$$: Densities of Common Substances
Solids Liquids Gases (at 25 °C and 1 atm)
ice (at 0 °C) 0.92 g/cm3 water 1.0 g/cm3 dry air 1.20 g/L
oak (wood) 0.60–0.90 g/cm3 ethanol 0.79 g/cm3 oxygen 1.31 g/L
iron 7.9 g/cm3 acetone 0.79 g/cm3 nitrogen 1.14 g/L
copper 9.0 g/cm3 glycerin 1.26 g/cm3 carbon dioxide 1.80 g/L
lead 11.3 g/cm3 olive oil 0.92 g/cm3 helium 0.16 g/L
silver 10.5 g/cm3 gasoline 0.70–0.77 g/cm3 neon 0.83 g/L
gold 19.3 g/cm3 mercury 13.6 g/cm3 radon 9.1 g/L

While there are many ways to determine the density of an object, perhaps the most straightforward method involves separately finding the mass and volume of the object, and then dividing the mass of the sample by its volume. In the following example, the mass is found directly by weighing, but the volume is found indirectly through length measurements.

$\mathrm{density=\dfrac{mass}{volume}}$

Example $$\PageIndex{1}$$

Calculation of Density Gold—in bricks, bars, and coins—has been a form of currency for centuries. In order to swindle people into paying for a brick of gold without actually investing in a brick of gold, people have considered filling the centers of hollow gold bricks with lead to fool buyers into thinking that the entire brick is gold. It does not work: Lead is a dense substance, but its density is not as great as that of gold, 19.3 g/cm3. What is the density of lead if a cube of lead has an edge length of 2.00 cm and a mass of 90.7 g?

Solution

The density of a substance can be calculated by dividing its mass by its volume. The volume of a cube is calculated by cubing the edge length.

$\mathrm{volume\: of\: lead\: cube=2.00\: cm\times2.00\: cm\times2.00\: cm=8.00\: cm^3} \nonumber$

$\mathrm{density=\dfrac{mass}{volume}=\dfrac{90.7\: g}{8.00\: cm^3}=\dfrac{11.3\: g}{1.00\: cm^3}=11.3\: g/cm^3} \nonumber$

(We will discuss the reason for rounding to the first decimal place in the next section.)

Exercise $$\PageIndex{1}$$

1. To three decimal places, what is the volume of a cube (cm3) with an edge length of 0.843 cm?
2. If the cube in part (a) is copper and has a mass of 5.34 g, what is the density of copper to two decimal places?

0.599 cm3;

8.91 g/cm3

Example $$\PageIndex{2}$$: Using Displacement of Water to Determine Density

This PhET simulation illustrates another way to determine density, using displacement of water. Determine the density of the red and yellow blocks.

Solution

When you open the density simulation and select Same Mass, you can choose from several 5.00-kg colored blocks that you can drop into a tank containing 100.00 L water. The yellow block floats (it is less dense than water), and the water level rises to 105.00 L. While floating, the yellow block displaces 5.00 L water, an amount equal to the weight of the block. The red block sinks (it is more dense than water, which has density = 1.00 kg/L), and the water level rises to 101.25 L.

The red block therefore displaces 1.25 L water, an amount equal to the volume of the block. The density of the red block is:

$\mathrm{density=\dfrac{mass}{volume}=\dfrac{5.00\: kg}{1.25\: L}=4.00\: kg/L}$

Note that since the yellow block is not completely submerged, you cannot determine its density from this information. But if you hold the yellow block on the bottom of the tank, the water level rises to 110.00 L, which means that it now displaces 10.00 L water, and its density can be found:

$\mathrm{density=\dfrac{mass}{volume}=\dfrac{5.00\: kg}{10.00\: L}=0.500\: kg/L}$

Exercise $$\PageIndex{1}$$

Remove all of the blocks from the water and add the green block to the tank of water, placing it approximately in the middle of the tank. Determine the density of the green block.

2.00 kg/L

### Summary

Measurements provide quantitative information that is critical in studying and practicing chemistry. Each measurement has an amount, a unit for comparison, and an uncertainty. Measurements can be represented in either decimal or scientific notation. Scientists primarily use the SI (International System) or metric systems. We use base SI units such as meters, seconds, and kilograms, as well as derived units, such as liters (for volume) and g/cm3 (for density). In many cases, we find it convenient to use unit prefixes that yield fractional and multiple units, such as microseconds (10−6 seconds) and megahertz (106 hertz), respectively.

### Footnotes

1. Read more about the redefinition of SI units including the kilogram here (Laura Howe, CE&N, Nov. 16, 2018).

### Key Equations

• $$\mathrm{density=\dfrac{mass}{volume}}$$

### Glossary

cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc)
volume of a cube with an edge length of exactly 1 cm
cubic meter (m3)
SI unit of volume
density
ratio of mass to volume for a substance or object
kilogram (kg)
standard SI unit of mass; 1 kg = approximately 2.2 pounds
length
measure of one dimension of an object
liter (L)
(also, cubic decimeter) unit of volume; 1 L = 1,000 cm3
meter (m)
standard metric and SI unit of length; 1 m = approximately 1.094 yards
milliliter (mL)
1/1,000 of a liter; equal to 1 cm3
second (s)
SI unit of time
SI units (International System of Units)
standards fixed by international agreement in the International System of Units (Le Système International d’Unités)
unit
standard of comparison for measurements
volume
amount of space occupied by an object

### Contributors

• Adelaide Clark, Oregon Institute of Technology
• Crash Course Chemistry: Crash Course is a division of Complexly and videos are free to stream for educational purposes.
• Sci Show is a division of Complexly and videos are free to stream for educational purposes.