Skip to main content
Chemistry LibreTexts

19.12: Solutions to Additional Exercises

  • Page ID
    183119
  • General Review

    21-1

    21-2  1-[4-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl]ethan-1-one

    Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids

    21-3:

    21-4:

    Possible route of synthesis:

    21-5:

    Answer: C 

    (E or Z orientation allowed)

    Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution

    21-6:

    21-7:

    21-8:

    Answer: B

    Condensation of Acids with Alcohols: the Fischer Esterification

    21-9:

    21-10:

    Answer: D

    21-11:

    Condensation of Acids with Amines: Direct Synthesis of Amides

    21-12:

    21-13:

    Answer: C

    21-14:

    Alkylation of Carboxylic Acids to Form Ketones

    21-15:

    21-16:

    Two equivalents of the organolithium reagent is necessary for the alkylation of carboxylic acids because one equivalent is used to form a salt with the carboxylic acid and the other equivalent is the nucleophile that adds to the carbonyl carbon. 

    An example of the intermediate from problem 20-1.

    21-17: