Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids
Possible route of synthesis:
(E or Z orientation allowed)
Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution
Condensation of Acids with Alcohols: the Fischer Esterification
Condensation of Acids with Amines: Direct Synthesis of Amides
Alkylation of Carboxylic Acids to Form Ketones
Two equivalents of the organolithium reagent is necessary for the alkylation of carboxylic acids because one equivalent is used to form a salt with the carboxylic acid and the other equivalent is the nucleophile that adds to the carbonyl carbon.
An example of the intermediate from problem 20-1.