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Chemistry LibreTexts

18: Ketones and Aldehydes

  • Page ID
    183089
  • learning objectives

    After reading this chapter and completing ALL the exercises, a student can be able to

    • describe the structure and physical properties of aldehydes and ketones (section 19.1) 
    • determine the structure of aldehydes and ketones from their elemental analysis and spectral data (MS, IR 1H NMR & 13C NMR) (section 19.2)
    • predict the products and specify the reagents to synthesize aldehydes and ketones for reactions studied to date  (section 19.3)
    • predict the products and specify the reagents to synthesize aldehydes and ketones for new reactions (section 19.4)
    • write the general mechanism for nucleophilic addition reactions with aldehydes and ketones (sections 19.5 to 19.11, 19.13, & 19.15)
    • predict the relative reactivity of carbonyl compounds to nucleophilic addition reactions (sections 19.5 to 19.13, & 19.15)
    • predict the relative equilibrium constant & rates of hydration for aldehydes and ketones (section 19.6)
    • show the general mechanism for the Wittig reaction (section 19.13)
    • predict the products and specify the reagents for oxidation and reduction reactions of aldehydes and ketones (section 19.14 and 19.15)
    • combine the reactions studied to date to develop efficient and effective multiple-step synthesis including the use of acetals/ketals as protecting groups (sect 19.12)

    Please note: IUPAC nomenclature and important common names of aldehydes and ketones were explained in Chapter 3.