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Chemistry LibreTexts

12.12: Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials

  • Page ID
    233066
  • Half-Reaction E° (V)
    {\text{Ag}}^{+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }\rightarrow\text{ Ag} +0.7996
    {\text{AgCl + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Ag + Cl}}^{-} +0.22233
    {\left[\text{Ag}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{\text{2}}\right]}^{-}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Ag +}{\text{ 2CN}}^{-} –0.31
    {\text{Ag}}_{\text{2}}{\text{CrO}}_{\text{4}}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ 2Ag + CrO}}_{\text{4}}{}^{2-} +0.45
    {\left[\text{Ag}{\left({\text{NH}}_{\text{3}}\right)}_{\text{2}}\right]}^{+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Ag + 2NH}}_{\text{3}} +0.373
    {\left[\text{Ag}{\left({\text{S}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}\right)}_{\text{2}}\right]}^{3+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Ag + 2S}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}{}^{2-} +0.017
    {\left[{\text{AlF}}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{3-}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Al + 6F}}^{-} –2.07
    {\text{Al}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Al} –1.662
    {\text{Am}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Am} –2.048
    {\text{Au}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Au} +1.498
    {\text{Au}}^{+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Au} +1.692
    {\text{Ba}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Ba} –2.912
    {\text{Be}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Be} –1.847
    {\text{Br}}_{\text{2}}\left(aq\right){+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ 2Br}}^{-} +1.0873
    {\text{Ca}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Ca} –2.868
    {\text{Ce}}^{\text{3}}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Ce} –2.483
    {\text{Ce}}^{\text{4+}}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Ce}}^{3+} +1.61
    {\text{Cd}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Cd} –0.4030
    {\left[\text{Cd}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{2-}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Cd + 4CN}}^{-} –1.09
    {\left[\text{Cd}{\left({\text{NH}}_{\text{3}}\right)}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Cd + 4NH}}_{\text{3}} –0.61
    {\text{CdS + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Cd + }{\text{S}}^{2-} –1.17
    {\text{Cl}}_{\text{2}}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ 2Cl}}^{-} +1.35827
    {\text{ClO}}_{4}{}^{-}{\text{ + H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ ClO}}_{\text{3}}^{-}{\text{ + 2OH}}^{-} +0.36
    {\text{ClO}}_{3}{}^{-}{\text{ + H}}_{\text{2}}\text{O +}{\text{ 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ ClO}}_{\text{2}}^{-}{\text{ + 2OH}}^{-} +0.33
    {\text{ClO}}_{2}{}^{-}{\text{ + H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 2e}}^{-}{\rightarrow}{\text{ ClO}}^{-}{\text{ + 2OH}}^{-} +0.66
    {\text{ClO}}^{-}{\text{ + H}}_{\text{2}}\text{O +}{\text{ 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Cl}}^{-}{\text{ + 2OH}}^{-} +0.89
    {\text{ClO}}_{4}{}^{-}+2{\text{H}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}{\rightarrow}{\text{ ClO}}_{\text{3}}^{-}{\text{ + H}}_{\text{2}}\text{O} +1.189
    {\text{ClO}}_{3}{}^{-}+3{\text{H}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ HClO}}_{\text{2}}\text{ +}{\text{ H}}_{\text{2}}\text{O} +1.21
    \text{HClO}+{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{Cl}}^{-}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.482
    \text{HClO}+{\text{H}}^{+}+{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow\frac{1}{2}{\text{Cl}}_{2}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.611
    {\text{HClO}}_{\text{2}}+2{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow\text{HClO}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.628
    {\text{Co}}^{3+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Co}}^{+}\text{ }\left({\text{2 mol // H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}\right) +1.83
    {\text{Co}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Co} –0.28
    {\left[\text{Co}{\left({\text{NH}}_{\text{3}}\right)}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{3+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ }{\left[\text{Co}{\left({\text{NH}}_{\text{3}}\right)}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{+} +0.1
    \text{Co}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{\text{3}}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Co}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{\text{2}}{\text{ + OH}}^{-} +0.17
    {\text{Cr}}^{\text{3}}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Cr} –0.744
    {\text{Cr}}^{3+}\text{ + }{\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Cr}}^{+} –0.407
    {\text{Cr}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Cr} –0.913
    {\left[\text{Cu}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{\text{2}}\right]}^{-}{\text{ + e}}^{-}{\rightarrow}\text{ Cu +}{\text{ 2CN}}^{-} –0.43
    {\text{CrO}}_{4}{}^{2-}{\text{ + 4H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 3e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Cr(OH)}}_{\text{3}}{\text{ + 5OH}}^{-} –0.13
    {\text{Cr}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{7}{}^{2-}+14{\text{H}}^{+}+6{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow 2{\text{Cr}}^{3+}+7{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.232
    {\left[\text{Cr}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{-}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Cr + 4OH}}^{-} –1.2
    \text{Cr}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{\text{3}}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Cr + 3OH}}^{-} –1.48
    {\text{Cu}}^{+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Cu}}^{+} +0.153
    {\text{Cu}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Cu} +0.34
    {\text{Cu}}^{+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Cu} +0.521
    {\text{F}}_{\text{2}}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ 2F}}^{-} +2.866
    {\text{Fe}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Fe} –0.447
    {\text{Fe}}^{3+}\text{ +}{\text{ e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Fe}}^{+} +0.771
    {\left[\text{Fe}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{\text{3- }}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ }{\left[\text{Fe}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{\text{4-}} +0.36
    \text{Fe}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{\text{2}}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Fe + 2OH}}^{-} –0.88
    {\text{FeS + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Fe + S}}^{2-} –1.01
    {\text{Ga}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Ga} –0.549
    {\text{Gd}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Gd} –2.279
    \frac{\text{1}}{\text{2}}{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ H}}^{-} –2.23
    {\text{2H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{ + 2OH}}^{-} –0.8277
    {\text{H}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{2}+2{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow 2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.776
    2{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{H}}_{2} 0.00
    {\text{HO}}_{2}{}^{-}{\text{ + H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ 3OH}}^{-} +0.878
    {\text{Hf}}^{\text{4+}}{+4\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Hf} –1.55
    {\text{Hg}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Hg} +0.851
    {\text{2Hg}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Hg}}_{\text{2}}^{+} +0.92
    {\text{Hg}}_{2}{}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ 2Hg} +0.7973
    {\left[{\text{HgBr}}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{2-}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Hg + 4Br}}^{-} +0.21
    {\text{Hg}}_{\text{2}}{\text{Cl}}_{\text{2}}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ 2Hg + 2Cl}}^{-} +0.26808
    {\left[\text{Hg}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{2-}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Hg + 4CN}}^{-} –0.37
    {\left[{\text{HgI}}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{2-}{+2\text{e}}^{-}{\rightarrow}\text{ Hg + }{\text{4I}}^{-} –0.04
    {\text{HgS + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Hg + S}}^{2-} –0.70
    {\text{I}}_{\text{2}}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ 2I}}^{-} +0.5355
    {\text{In}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ In} –0.3382
    {\text{K}}^{+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ K} –2.931
    {\text{La}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ La} –2.52
    {\text{Li}}^{+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Li} –3.04
    {\text{Lu}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Lu} –2.28
    {\text{Mg}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Mg} –2.372
    {\text{Mn}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Mn} –1.185
    {\text{MnO}}_{\text{2}}{\text{ + 2H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Mn}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{\text{2}}{\text{ + 2OH}}^{-} –0.05
    {\text{MnO}}_{4}{}^{-}{\text{ + 2H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 3e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ MnO}}_{\text{2}}{\text{ + 4OH}}^{-} +0.558
    {\text{MnO}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{Mn}}^{2+}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.23
    {\text{MnO}}_{4}{}^{-}+8{\text{H}}^{+}+5{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{Mn}}^{2+}+4{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.507
    {\text{Na}}^{+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Na} –2.71
    {\text{Nd}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Nd} –2.323
    {\text{Ni}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Ni} –0.257
    {\left[\text{Ni}{\left({\text{NH}}_{\text{3}}\right)}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Ni + 6NH}}_{\text{3}} –0.49
    {\text{NiO}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{Ni}}^{2+}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.593
    {\text{NiO}}_{\text{2}}{\text{ + 2H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Ni}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{\text{2}}{\text{ + 2OH}}^{-} +0.49
    {\text{NiS + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Ni + S}}^{2-} +0.76
    {\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+3{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow\text{NO}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +0.957
    {\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}+3{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{HNO}}_{\text{2}}+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +0.92
    {\text{NO}}_{3}{}^{-}{\text{ + H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ NO}}_{\text{2}}^{-}{\text{ + 2OH}}^{-} +0.10
    {\text{Np}}^{\text{3}}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Np} –1.856
    {\text{O}}_{\text{2}}{\text{ + 2H}}_{\text{2}}\text{O + }{\text{4e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ 4OH}}^{-} +0.401
    {\text{O}}_{2}+2{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{H}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{2} +0.695
    {\text{O}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+4{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow 2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.229
    {\text{Pb}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Pb} –0.1262
    {\text{PbO}}_{2}+{\text{SO}}_{4}{}^{2-}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{PbSO}}_{4}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +1.69
    {\text{PbS + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Pb +}{\text{ S}}^{2-} –0.95
    {\text{PbSO}}_{\text{4}}\text{ +}{\text{ 2e}}^{-}{\rightarrow}{\text{ Pb + SO}}_{\text{4}}^{2-} –0.3505
    {\text{Pd}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Pd} +0.987
    {\left[{\text{PdCl}}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{2-}{+2\text{e}}^{-}{\rightarrow}\text{ Pd +}{\text{ 4Cl}}^{-} +0.591
    {\text{Pt}}^{+}\text{ +}{\text{ 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Pt } +1.20
    {\left[{\text{PtBr}}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{2-}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Pt + 4Br}}^{-} +0.58
    {\left[{\text{PtCl}}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{2-}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Pt + 4Cl}}^{-} +0.755
    {\left[{\text{PtCl}}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{2-}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ }{\left[{\text{PtCl}}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{2-}{\text{ + 2Cl}}^{-} +0.68
    {\text{Pu}}^{\text{3}}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Pu} –2.03
    {\text{Ra}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Ra} –2.92
    {\text{Rb}}^{+}{\text{ + e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Rb} –2.98
    {\left[{\text{RhCl}}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{3-}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Rh + 6Cl}}^{-} +0.44
    {\text{S + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ S}}^{2-} –0.47627
    \text{S}+2{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{H}}_{2}\text{S} +0.142
    {\text{Sc}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Sc} –2.09
    \text{Se}+2{\text{H}}^{+}+2{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow{\text{H}}_{2}\text{Se} –0.399
    {\left[{\text{SiF}}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{2-}{+4\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Si + 6F}}^{-} –1.2
    {\text{SiO}}_{3}{}^{2-}\text{ +}{\text{ 3H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O + 4e}}^{-}{\rightarrow}{\text{ Si + 6OH}}^{-} –1.697
    {\text{SiO}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+4{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow\text{Si}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} –0.86
    {\text{Sm}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Sm} –2.304
    {\text{Sn}}^{\text{4+}}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Sn}}^{+} +0.151
    {\text{Sn}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Sn} –0.1375
    {\left[{\text{SnF}}_{\text{6}}\right]}^{2-}{+4\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Sn + 6F}}^{-} –0.25
    {\text{SnS + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Sn + S}}^{2-} –0.94
    {\text{Sr}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Sr} –2.89
    {\text{TeO}}_{2}+4{\text{H}}^{+}+4{\text{e}}^{-}\rightarrow\text{Te}+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O} +0.593
    {\text{Th}}^{\text{4+}}{+4\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Th} –1.90
    {\text{Ti}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Ti} –1.630
    {\text{U}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ U} –1.79
    {\text{V}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ V } –1.19
    {\text{Y}}^{3+}{+3\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Y} –2.37
    {\text{Zn}}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Zn} –0.7618
    {\left[\text{Zn}{\left(\text{CN}\right)}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{2-}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Zn + 4CN}}^{-} –1.26
    {\left[\text{Zn}{\left({\text{NH}}_{\text{3}}\right)}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{+}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Zn + 4NH}}_{\text{3}} –1.04
    \text{Zn}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{\text{2}}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Zn + 2OH}}^{-} –1.245
    {\left[\text{Zn}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{\text{4}}\right]}^{\text{2}}{+2\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}{\text{ Zn + 4OH}}^{-} –1.199
    {\text{ZnS + 2e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Zn + }{\text{S}}^{2-} –1.40
    {\text{Zr}}^{\text{4}}{+4\text{e}}^{-}\text{ }{\rightarrow}\text{ Zr} –1.539
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