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3.2: Linux (Raspbian) Commands

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    commands to be figured out

    which

     

    Need to dive into redirect 

    file name > new file name

     

     

     

     

    Tab autocomplete -- when you hit tab it autocompletes if there is only on file with the same stem.  If you hit it twice, it shows all files with the same stem

     

    Keyboard Shortcuts

    <ctrl><alt><t> - opens the command line terminal

    <ctrl>l Clear screen

    <ctrl> u wipes out from where you are to the beginning

    <ctrl>a jump to beginning of a line

    <ctrl> e goes to end of line

    <ctrl>C  -  kills a running command.

    <shift><ctrl>V -paste

     

     

    Your Rapsberry Pi using Raspbian, which is a type of Linux operating system.

    Note: these commands have been adapted from multiple resources on the web, including but not limited to

     

     

     

    File Management

    • cat<file>:  Displays content of a file (concatenate)
      cat /home/pi/readme.txt
      

     

    • cd<path>: change directory (directs to specific directory in tree)
      cd /home/pi
      cd   #by itself takes you home
      cd~ 
      

     

    • cp<file or directory><destination>:  Copies file or directory to new location, to include subfolders (all content) you need to add -r (recursive)
      cp file.txt /home/pi/mydocuments
      cp /home/pi/mydocuments/file.txt /home/pi/experiment_folder
      cp -r /home/pi/mydocuments/ /home/pi/experiment_folder
      
    • find <file name>
      program that allows you to find where particular types of data exists across directory structures.

     

     


    • Needs to be developed
    • grep <string><location>:  (Global Regular Expression Print) Finds a string in a file or script 
      Needs to be developed 

     

    • head <file>:  Displays the head (beginning of a file)
      head /home/experiments/lab1.txt
      head -n20 /home/experiments/lab1.txt       (displays first 20 lines of lab1.txt
      

     

    • ls:  list files and directories in the current folder (or a specific folder if specified)
      ls
      ls /home/pi
      ls -1     (one, to make a single column)
      ls -l      (long, to list info)
      ls -l -a   (long and all, to include hidden files
      ls ../   (reaches up one level)
      

     

    • mkdir <folder>:  creates a new subfolder in the current folder, or the specified folder
      mkdir <new folder name.>
      mkdir /home/pi <new folder name
      

     

    • more<file>: Displays content of file, use enter or space to scroll through pages, q to quit.  Often useful for monitoring logfiles
      more /file_directory/filename.ext
      more /var/log/slyslo
      

     

    • mv<source><destination>:  moves a file or directory to a new location
      mv /home/pi/work/myfile.txt / /hom/pi/experiments/
      mv /home/pi/work/ /home/pi/experiments/
      

     

    • nano<file>:  Linux text editor (CTRL+O, Enter of CRTL +X saves changes)
      nano /home/pi/myscript.sh
      

     

    • pwd:  Print current Working Directory (shows what directory you are in
      pwd
      

     

    • rm <file>:  Deletes file, to delete a folder use -rf (recursive force)
      rm myscipt.sh
      rm -rf /home/pi/scripts
      

     

    • tail <file>: displays the end of a file (useful for seeing latest entries on logfiles)
      tail /var/log/syslog
      tail -n20 /var/log/syslog       (display twenty lines)
      tail -f /var/sys/syslof            (displays new lines in real time)
      

     

    • tar
      • tar -c:  store tar (compressed) files
        tar -cvfz arcjove/tar/gz /home/pi/Documents/mydirectory
            -c creates archive
            -v verbose
            -f filename of archive to follow
            -z compress files with gzip
        
      • tar -x: extract files
        tar -xvfz archive.tar.gz
        

     

    • tree:  shows tree in directories
      tree
      

    wc:  word count

    wc -l line count

     

     

    General Commands

    • clear :  clears terminal screen  
    • date :  gives current date
    • history : Gives a history of commands the last time the pi was run
    • poweroff : Shuts the Pi down  (Need to find keyboard shortcut)

     echo -n   no new line

    echo shows string/text that are used as arguments

     

    TOUCH

    Network Commands

    The Pi comes with two Network Interfaces, ethernet (eth0) and WiFi (wlan0)

    Configuration

    • ipconfig:  Diplays current IP donfiguation  (ip a) is shortcut
      ifconfig
      ip a
      

       

    • ping<ip>:  Sends ping package to another IP on network to see if host is up
      ping 111.111.1.1
      

    File Transfer-Remote Connection

    • wget<url> allows you to download a file from internet
      wget https://URL
      

       

    • ssh<user>@<ip>:  Protocol to allow you to remotely connect to computer over web.
      ssh root@111.111.1.1
      

    Package Management

    • apt-get install <package> installs a package
      sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
      

       

    • apt-get remove <package>  removes previously installed package
    • apt-cache search <package name> searches for package name in package list (repository)
      
      sudo apt-get search php
      

       

    • dpkg -l List installed packages on system.  Can be used with grep to find specific package

      dpkg -l
      dpkg -l | grep myadmin

    Raspbian Commands

    • raspi-config: allows you to manage configuation from terminal or ssh
      sudo raspi-config
      

       

    • raspi-gpio:  Allows you to control gpio ports
      Need to develop
    • raspistill:  takes an image with camera plugged to pi camera port
      raspistill -o imag.jpg
      

       

    • raspivid:  takes a video with camera, the time is in milliseconds
      raspivid -o video.h264 -t 10000   
      

       

    • raspividyuv or raspiyuv: allows video stream
      raspividyuv -o video.yuv
      

    System Management

    • htop: displays information on running processes (like top, but has more info)
      htop
      

       

    • kill <pid>:  kills a process by it's process ID (which you can get with the ps command)
      kill 12345      (Kills process ID 12345, but does not step the script and goes onto the next command of the program)
      kill 12345 -9  (Kills process 12345 and exits the program)
      

       

    • ps: displays running processes, to display everything
       ps aux
      

      to display a specific user

      ps -u pi
      

       

    • reboot : reboots the pi
      sudo reboot
      

       

    • service <service name><action>:  Allows you to start/stop services
      service apache 2 start
      service apache 2 stop
    • service apache2:  (shows actions available for a service)
      service apache 2
      • update-rc.d<service><action>: On Debian, allows you to start/stop service on system boot
        sudo update-rc.d ssh enable
      • update-rc.d -f ssh remove:  Disables start of service (-f option "forces") 
        sudo update-rc.d -f ssh remove

    NOTE:  These commands are only for services, to start other scripts/commands on boot you need to edit the local etc/rc/local file
            sudo nano /etc/rc.local

    • shutdown -h now :  shuts down (halts) the pi
      sudo shutdown -h now
      

       

    • shutdown -h <time> : shuts the Pi at specific time
      sudo shutdown -h 08:00
      

       

    • shutdown -r : shuts down and reboots the pi
      sudo shutdown -r
    • vcgencmd measure_temp:  Displays current CPU temperature
      vcgencmd measure_temp
      

     

    System Updates

    • apt-get update: Use to synchronize your list of packages with the most, should be run before upgrading packages to ensure you have the most recent versions
      sudo apt-get update
      

       

    • apt-get upgrade:  Upgrades installed software packages
      sudo apt-get upgrade
      

       

    • rpi-update: Updates everything (only use if you know what you are doing)

     

     

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