# 5: The Numbers Game - Solutions and Stoichiometry

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• 5.1 Expressing Solution Concentration
Different units are used to express the concentrations of a solution depending on the application. The concentration of a solution is the quantity of solute in a given quantity of solution. It can be expressed in several ways.
• 5.2 Types of Aqueous Solutions and Solubility
Electrolytic solutions are those that are capable of conducting an electric current. A substance that, when added to water, renders it conductive, is known as an electrolyte. A common example of an electrolyte is ordinary salt, sodium chloride. Solid NaCl and pure water are both non-conductive, but a solution of salt in water is readily conductive. A solution of sugar in water, by contrast, is incapable of conducting a current; sugar is therefore a non-electrolyte.
• 5.3 Colligative Properties and Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation and Osmosis
Colligative properties of a solution depend on only the total number of dissolved particles in solution, not on their chemical identity. Colligative properties include vapor pressure, boiling point, freezing point, and osmotic pressure. The addition of a nonvolatile solute (one without a measurable vapor pressure) decreases the vapor pressure of the solvent. The vapor pressure of the solution is proportional to the mole fraction of solvent in the solution, a relationship known as Raoult’s law.
• 5.4 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
A chemical reaction is described by a chemical equation that gives the identities and quantities of the reactants and the products. In a chemical reaction, one or more substances are transformed to new substances. A chemical reaction is described by a chemical equation, an expression that gives the identities and quantities of the substances involved in a reaction. A chemical equation shows the starting compound(s)—the reactants—on the left and the final compound(s)—the products—on the right.
• 5.5 Limiting Reactant and Theoretical Yield and Percent Yield
The stoichiometry of a balanced chemical equation identifies the maximum amount of product that can be obtained. The stoichiometry of a reaction describes the relative amounts of reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation. A stoichiometric quantity of a reactant is the amount necessary to react completely with the other reactant(s). If a reactant remains unconsumed after complete reaction has occurred, it is in excess. The reactant that is consumed first is the limiting reagent.
• 5.6 Representing Aqueous Reactions Molecular and Ionic and Complete Ionic Equations
The chemical equation for a reaction in solution can be written in three ways. The overall chemical equation shows all the substances present in their undissociated forms; the complete ionic equation shows all the substances present in the form in which they actually exist in solution; and the net ionic equation is derived from the complete ionic equation by omitting all spectator ions, ions that occur on both sides of the equation with the same coefficients.
• 5.7 Chemical Reactions and Aqueous Reactions (Exercises)

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