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Chemistry LibreTexts

1: Matter and Energy

  • Page ID
    142159
    • 1.1 The Terms of Science
      Studying science means learning many new words and concepts, and also learning new definitions for words that you are used to using in every day life. To avoid misunderstandings and confusion,  you will need to be very careful with the words you use and how you apply them. Even the numbers that you use will need to be carefully chosen because even though 50.00 and 5.000 x 10 describe the same measured number, they are both different numbers than 50.
    • 1.2: A First Look at the Periodic Table
      The periodic table is used as a predictive tool that arranges of the elements in order of increasing atomic number. Elements that exhibit similar chemistry appear in vertical columns called groups (numbered IA - VIIIA, with IIIB-IIB in the middle, or from 1–18 from left to right); the seven horizontal rows are called periods. The elements can be broadly divided into metals, nonmetals, and semimetals. Semimetals exhibit properties intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals.
    • 1.3: The Classification of Matter
      Matter can be classified according to physical and chemical properties. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. The three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A physical change involves the conversion of a substance from one state of matter to another, without changing its chemical composition. Most matter consists of mixtures of pure substances, which can be homogeneous (uniform in composition) or heterogeneous (different regions possess different compositions & properties.
    • 1.4: A First Look at Energy
      All forms of energy can be interconverted. Three things can change the energy of an object: the transfer of heat, work performed on or by an object, or some combination of heat and work. Thermochemistry is a branch of chemistry that qualitatively and quantitatively describes the energy changes that occur during chemical reactions. Energy is the capacity to do work.
    • 1.5: Making Measurements
      Measurements provide quantitative information that is critical in studying and practicing chemistry. Each measurement has an amount, a unit for comparison, and an uncertainty. Measurements can be represented in either decimal or scientific notation. Scientists primarily use the SI (International System) or metric systems. We use base SI units such as meters, seconds, and kilograms, as well as derived units, such as liters (for volume) and g/cm3 (for density).
    • 1.6: Limits on Measurements
      Quantities can be exact or measured. Measured quantities have an associated uncertainty that is represented by the number of significant figures in the measurement. The uncertainty of a calculated value depends on the uncertainties in the values used in the calculation and is reflected in how the value is rounded. Measured values can be accurate (close to the true value) and/or precise (showing little variation when measured repeatedly).
    • 1.7: Dimensional Analysis
      Measurements are made using a variety of units. It is often useful or necessary to convert a measured quantity from one unit into another. These conversions are accomplished using unit conversion factors, which are derived by simple applications of a mathematical approach called the factor-label method or dimensional analysis. This strategy is also employed to calculate sought quantities using measured quantities and appropriate mathematical relations.
    • 1.8: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving (Exercises)