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Chemistry LibreTexts

7.10: Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes (Exercises)

  • Page ID
    129903
  • Additional Exercises

    1. Draw the structure of the amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Would you expect to find GABA in the amino acid sequence of a protein? Explain.

    2. Draw the structure of the amino acid homocysteine (R group = CH2CH2SH). Would you expect to find homocysteine in the amino acid sequence of a protein? Justify your answer.

    3. Write equations to show how leucine can act as a buffer (that is, how it can neutralize added acid or base).

    4. Write equations to show how isoleucine can act as a buffer (that is, how it can neutralize added acid or base).

    5. Glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) is a tripeptide found in all cells of higher animals. It contains glutamic acid joined in an unusual peptide linkage involving the carboxyl group of the R group (known as γ-carboxyl group), rather than the usual carboxyl group (the α-carboxyl group). Draw the structure of glutathione.

    6. Draw the structure of the pentapeptide whose sequence is arg-his-gly-leu-asp. Identify which of the amino acids have R groups that can donate or gain hydrogen ions.

    7. Bradykinin is a peptide hormone composed of nine amino acids that lowers blood pressure. Its primary structure is arg-pro-pro-gly-phe-ser-pro-phe-arg. Would you expect bradykinin to be positively charged, negatively charged, or neutral at a pH of 6.0? Justify your answer.

    8. One of the neurotransmitters involved in pain sensation is a peptide called substance P, which is composed of 11 amino acids and is released by nerve-cell terminals in response to pain. Its primary structure is arg-pro-lys-pro-gln-gln-phe-phe-gly-leu-met. Would you expect this peptide to be positively charged, negatively charged, or neutral at a pH of 6.0? Justify your answer.

    9. Carbohydrates are incorporated into glycoproteins. Would you expect the incorporation of sugar units to increase or decrease the solubility of a protein? Justify your answer.

    10. Some proteins have phosphate groups attached through an ester linkage to the OH groups of serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues to form phosphoproteins. Would you expect the incorporation of a phosphate group to increase or decrease the solubility of a protein? Justify your answer.

    11. Refer to Table 18.5 and determine how each enzyme would be classified.

      1. the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde
      2. the enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of glucose 6-phosphate to glucose and inorganic phosphate ion (water is also a reactant in this reaction)
    12. Refer to Table 18.5 and determine how each enzyme would be classified.

      1. the enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a carboxyl group from pyruvate to form acetate

        12a.jpg
      2. the enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of 3-phosphoglycerate to form 2-phosphoglycerate

        12b.jpg
    13. The enzyme lysozyme has an aspartic acid residue in the active site. In acidic solution, the enzyme is inactive, but activity increases as the pH rises to around 6. Explain why.

    14. The enzyme lysozyme has a glutamic acid residue in the active site. At neutral pH (6–7), the enzyme is active, but activity decreases as the pH rises. Explain why.

    15. The activity of a purified enzyme is measured at a substrate concentration of 1.0 μM and found to convert 49 μmol of substrate to product in 1 min. The activity is measured at 2.0 μM substrate and found to convert 98 μmol of substrate to product/minute.

      1. When the substrate concentration is 100 μM, how much substrate would you predict is converted to product in 1 min? What if the substrate concentration were increased to 1,000 μM (1.0 mM)?
      2. The activities actually measured are 676 μmol product formed/minute at a substrate concentration of 100 μM and 698 μmol product formed/minute at 1,000 μM (1.0 mM) substrate. Is there any discrepancy between these values and those you predicted in Exercise 15a? Explain.
    16. A patient has a fever of 39°C. Would you expect the activity of enzymes in the body to increase or decrease relative to their activity at normal body temperature (37°C)?

    17. Using your knowledge of factors that influence enzyme activity, describe what happens when milk is pasteurized.

    Answers

    1. 1.jpg

      This amino acid would not be found in proteins because it is not an α-amino acid.

     
    1. 3.jpg
     
    1. 5.jpg
     
    1. Bradykinin would be positively charged; all of the amino acids, except for arginine, have R groups that do not become either positively or negatively charged. The two arginines are R groups that are positively charged at neutral pH, so the peptide would have an overall positive charge.

     
    1. Carbohydrates have many OH groups attached, which can engage in hydrogen bonding with water, which increases the solubility of the proteins.

     
    1.  

      1. oxidoreductase
      2. hydrolase
     
    1. The enzyme is active when the carboxyl group in the R group of aspartic acid does not have the hydrogen attached (forming COO); the hydrogen is removed when the pH of the solution is around pH 6 or higher.

     
    1.  

      1. at 100 μM, you would predict that the rate would increase 100 times to 4,900 μmol of substrate to product in 1 min; at 1.0 mM, you would predict an increase to 49,000 μmol of substrate to product in 1 min.
      2. There is a great discrepancy between the predicted rates and actual rates; this occurs because the enzyme becomes saturated with substrate, preventing a further increase in the rate of the reaction (the reaction is no longer linear with respect to substrate concentration because it is at very low concentrations).
     
    1. When milk is pasteurized, it is heated to high temperatures. These high temperatures denature the proteins in bacteria, so they cannot carry out needed functions to grow and multiply.