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16.8: Recommended Primary Standards

  • Page ID
    220805
  • All compounds are of the highest available purity. Metals are cleaned with dilute acid to remove any surface impurities and rinsed with distilled water. Unless otherwise indicated, compounds are dried to a constant weight at 110 oC. Most of these compounds are soluble in dilute acid (1:1 HCl or 1:1 HNO3), with gentle heating if necessary; some of the compounds are water soluble.

    Element Compound FW (g/mol) Comments
    aluminum Al metal 26.982
    antimony Sb metal 121.760
    \(\ce{KSbOC4H4O6}\) 324.92 prepared by drying \(\ce{KSbC4H4O6 * 1/2H2O}\) at 100 °C and storing in a desicator
    arsenic As metal 74.922
    \(\ce{As2O3}\) 197.84 toxic
    barium \(\ce{BaCO3}\) 197.84 dry at 200 oC for 4 h
    bismuth Bi metal 208.98
    boron \(\ce{H3BO3}\) 61.83 do not dry
    bromine KBr 119.01
    cadmium Cd metal 112.411
    CdO 128.40
    calcium \(\ce{CaCO3}\) 100.09
    cerium Ce metal 140.116
    \(\ce{(NH4)2Ce(NO3)4}\) 548.23
    cesium \(\ce{Cs2CO3}\) 325.82
    \(\ce{Cs2SO4}\) 361.87
    chlorine NaCl 58.44
    chromium Cr metal 51.996
    \(\ce{K2Cr2O7}\) 294.19
    cobalt Co metal 58.933
    copper Cu metal 63.546
    CuO 79.54
    fluorine NaF 41.99 do not store solutions in glass containers
    iodine KI 166.00
    \(\ce{KIO3}\) 214.00
    iron Fe metal 55.845
    lead Pb metal 207.2
    lithium \(\ce{Li2CO3}\) 73.89
    magnesium Mg metal 24.305
    manganese Mn metal 54.938
    mercury Hg metal 200.59
    molybdenum Mo metal 95.94
    nickel Ni metal 58.693
    phosphorous \(\ce{KH2PO4}\) 136.09
    \(\ce{P2O5}\) 141.94
    potassium KCl 74.56
    \(\ce{K2CO3}\) 138.21
    \(\ce{K2Cr2O7}\) 294.19
    \(\ce{KHC8H4O2}\) 204.23
    silicon Si metal 28.085
    \(\ce{SiO2}\) 60.08
    silver Ag metal 107.868
    \(\ce{AgNO3}\) 169.87
    sodium NaCl 58.44
    \(\ce{Na2CO3}\) 106.00
    \(\ce{Na2C2O4}\) 134.00
    strontium \(\ce{SrCO3}\) 147.63
    sulfur elemental S 32.066
    \(\ce{K2SO4}\) 174.27
    \(\ce{Na2SO4}\) 142.04
    tin Sn metal 118.710
    titanium Ti metal 47.867
    tungsten W metal 183.84
    uranium U metal 238.029
    \(\ce{U3O8}\) 842.09
    vanadium V metal 50.942
    zinc Zn metal 81.37

    Sources:

    • Smith, B. W.; Parsons, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 679–681
    • Moody, J. R.; Greenburg, P. R.; Pratt, K. W.; Rains, T. C. Anal. Chem. 1988, 60, 1203A–1218A.
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