The introductory course in analytical chemistry is the ideal place in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum for exploring topics such as experimental design, sampling, calibration strategies, standardization, optimization, statistics, and the validation of experimental results. Analytical methods come and go, but best practices for designing and validating analytical methods are universal.
• ## 1: Introduction to Analytical Chemistry

Analytical chemists work to improve the ability of chemists and other scientists to make meaningful measurements. The need to work with smaller samples, with more complex materials, with processes occurring on shorter time scales, and with species present at lower concentrations challenges analytical chemists to improve existing analytical methods and to develop new ones.
• ## 2: Basic Tools of Analytical Chemistry

In the chapters that follow we will explore many aspects of analytical chemistry. In the process we will consider important questions, such as “How do we extract useful results from experimental data?”, “How do we ensure our results are accurate?”, “How do we obtain a representative sample?”, and “How do we select an appropriate analytical technique?” Before we consider these and other questions, we first must review some basic tools of importance to analytical chemists.
• ## 3: The Vocabulary of Analytical Chemistry

If you browse through an issue of the journal Analytical Chemistry, you will discover that the authors and readers share a common vocabulary of analytical terms. You probably are familiar with some of these terms, such as accuracy and precision, but other terms, such as analyte and matrix, are perhaps less familiar to you. In order to participate in any community, one must first understand its vocabulary; the goal of this chapter, therefore, is to introduce some important analytical terms. Becom
• ## 4: Evaluating Analytical Data

When we use an analytical method we make three separate evaluations of experimental error. First, before we begin the analysis we evaluate potential sources of errors to ensure they will not adversely effect our results. Second, during the analysis we monitor our measurements to ensure that errors remain acceptable. Finally, at the end of the analysis we evaluate the quality of the measurements and results, and compare them to our original design criteria.
• ## 5: Standardizing Analytical Methods

The American Chemical Society’s Committee on Environmental Improvement defines standardization as the process of determining the relationship between the signal and the amount of analyte in a sample. Strategies for accomplishing this are the subject of this chapter.
• ## 6: Equilibrium Chemistry

Regardless of the problem on which an analytical chemist is working, its solution requires a knowledge of chemistry and the ability to apply that knowledge to analytical problems. Because of its importance to analytical chemistry, this chapter provides a review of equilibrium chemistry. Much of the material in this chapter should be familiar to you, although some topics ;ikely afford you with new ways to look at equilibrium chemistry.
• ## 7: Obtaining and Preparing Samples for Analysis

Why might a carefully designed analytical method give poor results? One reason is we may have failed to account for errors associated with the sample. If we collect the wrong sample, or if we lose analyte when we prepare the sample for analysis, then we introduce a determinate source of error. If we fail to collect enough samples, or if we collect samples of the wrong size, then the precision of our analysis may suffer.
• ## 8: Gravimetric Methods

Gravimetry includes all analytical methods in which the analytical signal is a measurement of mass or a change in mass. Mass is the most fundamental of all analytical measurements, and gravimetry is unquestionably our oldest quantitative analytical technique.
• ## 9: Titrimetric Methods

In titrimetry we add a reagent, called the titrant, to a solution that contains another reagent, called the titrand, and allow them to react. The type of reaction provides us with a simple way to divide titrimetry into four categories: acid–base titrations, complexometric titrations , redox titrations, and precipitation titrations.
• ## 10: Spectroscopic Methods

An early example of a colorimetric analysis is Nessler’s method for ammonia, which was introduced in 1856. Nessler found that adding an alkaline solution of $$\text{HgI}_2$$ and KI to a dilute solution of ammonia produced a yellow-to-reddish brown colloid, in which the colloid’s color depended on the concentration of ammonia. By visually comparing the color of a sample to the colors of a series of standards, Nessler was able to determine the concentration of ammonia.
• ## 11: Electrochemical Methods

In Chapter 10 we examined several spectroscopic techniques that take advantage of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter. In this chapter we turn our attention to electrochemical techniques in which the potential, current, or charge in an electrochemical cell serves as the analytical signal.
• ## 12: Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods

Many analytical procedures include a step to separate the analyte from potential interferents. In this chapter we consider two analytical techniques that avoid these limitations by combining the separation and analysis: chromatography and electrophoresis.
• ## 13: Kinetic Methods

The analytical methods described in Chapter 8–11 mostly involve measurements made on systems in which the analyte is at equilibrium. In this chapter we turn our attention to measurements made under nonequilibrium conditions.
• ## 14: Developing a Standard Method

Gravimetry includes all analytical methods in which the analytical signal is a measurement of mass or a change in mass. When you step on a scale after exercising you are making, in a sense, a gravimetric determination of your mass. Mass is the most fundamental of all analytical measurements, and gravimetry is unquestionably our oldest quantitative analytical technique.
• ## 15: Quality Assurance

Knowing that a method meets suitable standards is important if we are to have confidence in our results. Even so, using a standard method does not guarantee that the result of an analysis is acceptable. In this chapter we introduce the quality assurance procedures used in industry and government labs for monitoring routine chemical analyses.