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Chemistry LibreTexts


  1. J.K. Campbell, Li Sun, R. M. Crooks, Electrochemistry Using Single Carbon Nanotubes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 121 (1999) 3779.
  2. This relationship was derived by F. G. Cottrell, a mathematician, over 100 years ago (Z. Physik. Chem, 42 (1902) 385). Its derivation by Laplace transform can be found in the classical monographs by a) P. Delahay, New Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Wiley Interscience, NY 1954 and b) A. J. Bard and L. R. Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Ed. J. Wiley & Sons, NY (2001) ppg 161-163.
  3. Refer to pages 170 – 175 of reference 2b.
  4. The use of carbon microfibers for probing brain chemistry (i.e., dopamine) was pioneered by the late Professor Ralph N. Adams and his students at the University of Kansas. An article on the development of in-vivo microelectrodes for monitoring dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain is discussed in Probing Brain Chemistry: Voltammetry Comes of Age by J. A. Stamford and J. B. Justice, Jr., in Analytical Chemistry,Vol. 96 (1996) ppg. 359A – 366A. It is available online:
  5. R. Mark Wightman and Robert Ensman developed the EI-400. Wightman has been a leader in the development of electroanalytical methods involving fast scan voltammetry with microelectrodes for detecting and quantitating neurotransmitters. Please refer to: and click on “Mark Wightman/66-EI400” and