- 7.1: Basic concepts in surface imaging & localized spectroscopy
- Most surface spectroscopic techniques involve probing the surface by exposing it to a flux of "particles" (hν , e- , A+ ....) and simultaneously monitoring the response to this stimulation by, for example, measuring the energy distribution of emitted electrons. In their most basic form, these techniques collect information from a relatively large area of surface (∼ mm2 ). In most cases, however, there are variations of these techniques which permit either.
- 7.2: Electron Microscopy - SEM & SAM
- The two forms of electron microscopy which are commonly used to provide surface information are: Secondary Electron Microscopy ( SEM ) - which provides a direct image of the topographical nature of the surface from all the emitted secondary electrons and Scanning Auger Microscopy ( SAM ) - which provides compositional maps of a surface by forming an image from the Auger electrons emitted by a particular element.
- 7.5: Auger Depth Profiling
- Auger Spectroscopy is a surface sensitive spectroscopic technique yielding compositional information. In its basic form it provides compositional information on a relatively large area of surface using a broad-focused electron beam probe. In this manner, sufficient signal can be readily obtained whilst keeping the incident electron flux low, and thus avoiding potential electron-induced modifications of the surface. As a consequence the technique is non-destructive when used in this manner.
Roger Nix (Queen Mary, University of London)