||Estimate the wavelength of the photon which is emitted when a 3p electron falls to a vacancy in the 1s orbital in a chlorine ion. The energies of the 1s and 3p orbitals in chlorine are -2.854 ´ 103 ev and -13.77 ev respectively.
||In his investigation of the X-ray spectra of the elements, Moseley found that the frequencies of the lines of shortest wavelength could be expressed as a function of the atomic number Z as
|where a and s are constants. Account for the general form of the relationship. What is the significance of the factor s?
||On the basis of your knowledge of the electronic structure of the elements arrange the following substances in the order of their increasing ability to act as oxidizing agents.
He+, Cl, P, Na, F-
||Arrange the following substances in the order of their increasing ability to act as reducing agents.
Cs, Li, C, S, Cl
||Rationalize the following observations on the basis of the electronic structures of the halogen atoms and their ions. Iodide ions can be oxidized to elemental iodine by molecular oxygen
4HI + O2 ® 2Li + 2H20
but the corresponding reaction does not occur with HCl
HCl + O2 ® no reaction
||Account for the fact that the second ionization potential for oxygen is greater than that for fluorine. (I2 for 0 is 35.15 ev and I2 for F is 34.98 ev.)
||Which atom or ion in the following pairs has the highest ionization potential?
|(a) N, P
(b) Mg, Sr
(c) Ge, As
(d) Ar, K+
||Of the following substances: F2, F-, I2, I-
||Which is the best oxidizing agent?
||Which is the best reducing agent?
||Write one chemical equation for a reaction which will illustrate your answers to parts (a) and (b).