With few exceptions, the multitude of reactions discussed in introductory texts are classified as ionic reactions. By this we mean that nucleophilic and electrophilic sites in reacting molecules bond to each other. Furthermore, charged species such as carbocations, carbanions, conjugate acids and conjugate bases are often intermediates on the reaction path, the overall transformation taking place in two or more discrete steps. Ionic reactions normally occur in solution, and changes in solvents may have dramatic consequences. Free-radical addition is an addition reaction in organic chemistry involving free radicals. The addition may occur between a radical and a non-radical, or between two radicals.
- John D. Robert and Marjorie C. Caserio (1977) Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry, second edition. W. A. Benjamin, Inc. , Menlo Park, CA. ISBN 0-8053-8329-8. This content is copyrighted under the following conditions, "You are granted permission for individual, educational, research and non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display and performance of this work in any format."