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Chemistry LibreTexts

9: Solutions

  • Page ID
    15928
  • Solutions are all around us. Air, for example, is a solution. If you live near a lake, a river, or an ocean, that body of water is not pure H2O but most probably a solution. Much of what we drink—for example, soda, coffee, tea, and milk—is at least in part a solution. Solutions are a large part of everyday life. A lot of the chemistry occurring around us happens in solution. In fact, much of the chemistry that occurs in our own bodies takes place in solution, and many solutions—such as the Ringer’s lactate IV solution—are important for our health. In our understanding of chemistry, we need to understand a little bit about solutions. In this chapter, you will learn about the special characteristics of solutions, how solutions are characterized, and some of their properties.

    • 9.0: Prelude to Solutions
    • 9.1: Solutions
      Solutions form because a solute and a solvent experience similar intermolecular interactions.
    • 9.2: Concentration
      Various concentration units are used to express the amounts of solute in a solution. Concentration units can be used as conversion factors in stoichiometry problems. New concentrations can be easily calculated if a solution is diluted.
    • 9.3: The Dissolution Process
      When a solute dissolves, its individual particles are surrounded by solvent molecules and are separated from each other.
    • 9.4: Properties of Solutions
      Certain properties of solutions differ from those of pure solvents in predictable ways.
    • 9.5: Chemical Equilibrium
      Chemical equilibrium can be attained whether the reaction begins with all reactants and no products, all products and no reactants, or some of both. It may be tempting to think that once equilibrium has been reached, the reaction stops. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process. The forward and reverse reactions continue to occur even after equilibrium has been reached. Because the rates of the reactions are the same, there is no change in the relative concentrations of reactants and products.
    • 9.6: Le Chatelier's Principle
      The description of how a system responds to a stress to equilibrium has become known as Le Châtelier's principle: When a chemical system that is at equilibrium is disturbed by a stress, the system will respond in order to relieve the stress. Stresses to a chemical system involve changes in the concentrations of reactants or products, changes in the temperature of the system, or changes in the pressure of the system.
    • 9.7: Osmosis and Diffusion
      Fish cells, like all cells, have semipermeable membranes. Eventually, the concentration of "stuff" on either side of them will even out. A fish that lives in salt water will have somewhat salty water inside itself. Put it in freshwater, and the freshwater will, through osmosis, enter the fish, causing its cells to swell, and the fish will die. What will happen to a freshwater fish in the ocean?
    • 9.E: Solutions (Exercises)
      Problems and select solutions to this chapter.
    • 9.S: Solutions (Summary)
      To ensure that you understand the material in this chapter, you should review the meanings of the bold terms in the following summary and ask yourself how they relate to the topics in the chapter.