Introductory Chemistry Online is an open-source introductory chemistry textbook/workbook that is designed cover a college-level one-semester course. Many contemporary textbooks in chemistry seem have adopted the notion that "more is better"; the books are long, expensive, and the pages are often cluttered with interesting tidbits and restatements of what it is that you have “just learned”.
- In this chapter, we will look more closely at matter and break it into sub-classes including pure substances and mixtures. We will look at the physical state that matter can adopt (solids, liquids, and gasses) And we will learned how to characterized these using intensive properties such as density. Finally, we will look at changes in these properties and define them in terms of simple physical changes and chemical changes, where one or more substances combine to make new substances.
- Water is the most remarkable solvent! The O—H bonds in water are polarized due to the differences in electronegativity between hydrogen and oxygen. When this uneven charge distribution is coupled with the fact that water has a “bent” molecular geometry, the two covalent bond dipoles combine to form a molecular dipole (shown in the electrostatic potential map on the right. This molecular dipole allows water to surround and stabilize ions in solution, making water a powerful solvent.