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Chemistry LibreTexts

Periodic Trends of Elemental Properties

  • Page ID
    10994
  • Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its size and its electronic properties. Major periodic trends include: electronegativity, ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radius, melting point, and metallic character. Periodic trends, arising from the arrangement of the periodic table, provide chemists with an invaluable tool to quickly predict an element's properties. These trends exist because of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their respective group families or periods, and because of the periodic nature of the elements.

    • Periodic Properties of the Elements
      The elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. All of these elements display several other trends and we can use the periodic law and table formation to predict their chemical, physical, and atomic properties. Understanding these trends is done by analyzing the elements electron configuration; all elements prefer an octet formation and will gain or lose electrons to form that stable configuration.
    • Periodic Trends
      Page notifications Off Share Table of contents Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its size and its electronic properties. Major periodic trends include: electronegativity, ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radius, melting point, and metallic character. Periodic trends, arising from the arrangement of the periodic table, provide chemists with an invaluable tool.
    • Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii
      An understanding of periodic trends is necessary when analyzing and predicting molecular properties and interactions. Common periodic trends include those in ionization energy, atomic radius, and electron affinity. One such trend is closely linked to atomic radii -- ionic radii. Neutral atoms tend to increase in size down a group and decrease across a period. When a neutral atom gains or loses an electron, creating an anion or cation, the atom's radius increases or decreases, respectively.
    • Table Basics
      The periodic table of elements is one of the ways that scientists keep track of all the known elements.
    • The Periodic Law
      The periodic law was developed independently by Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer in 1869. Mendeleev created the first periodic table and was shortly followed by Meyer. They both arranged the elements by their mass and proposed that certain properties periodically reoccur. Meyer formed his periodic law based on the atomic volume or molar volume, which is the atomic mass divided by the density in solid form.