Skip to main content
Chemistry LibreTexts

9.3: Solution Stoichiomentry

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    Learning Objectives
    • How to calculate the concentrations of ions when a salt is dissolved

    In Example \(\PageIndex{2}\), the concentration of a solution containing 90.00 g of ammonium dichromate in a final volume of 250 mL were calculated to be 1.43 M. Let’s consider in more detail exactly what that means. Ammonium dichromate is an ionic compound that contains two NH4+ ions and one Cr2O72 ion per formula unit. Like other ionic compounds, it is a strong electrolyte that dissociates in aqueous solution to give hydrated NH4+ and Cr2O72 ions:

    \[ (NH_4 )_2 Cr_2 O_7 (s) \xrightarrow {H_2 O(l)} 2NH_4^+ (aq) + Cr_2 O_7^{2-} (aq)\label{4.5.5} \]

    Thus 1 mol of ammonium dichromate formula units dissolves in water to produce 1 mol of Cr2O72 anions and 2 mol of NH4+ cations (see Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\)).

    1 mol of ammonium dichromate is shown in a 1 liter volumetric flask. The resulting volumetric flask on the right contains 1 liter of solution after being dissolved with water. Powdered form of ammonium dichromate is also included in diagram.
    Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\): Dissolution of 1 mol of an Ionic Compound. In this case, dissolving 1 mol of (NH4)2Cr2O7 produces a solution that contains 1 mol of Cr2O72 ions and 2 mol of NH4+ ions. (Water molecules are omitted from a molecular view of the solution for clarity.)

    When carrying out a chemical reaction using a solution of a salt such as ammonium dichromate, it is important to know the concentration of each ion present in the solution. If a solution contains 1.43 M (NH4)2Cr2O7, then the concentration of Cr2O72 must also be 1.43 M because there is one Cr2O72 ion per formula unit. However, there are two NH4+ ions per formula unit, so the concentration of NH4+ ions is 2 × 1.43 M = 2.86 M. Because each formula unit of (NH4)2Cr2O7 produces three ions when dissolved in water (2NH4+ + 1Cr2O72), the total concentration of ions in the solution is 3 × 1.43 M = 4.29 M.

    Concentration of Ions in Solution from a Soluble Salt:

    9.3: Solution Stoichiomentry is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

    • Was this article helpful?