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Chemistry LibreTexts

4.S: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Summary)

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  • aqueous solutions – solutions in which water is the dissolving medium

    4.1: General Properties of Aqueous Solutions

    • electrolyte – substance whose aqueous solution contains ions
    • nonelectrolyte – substance that does not form ions in solution

    4.2.1 Ionic Compounds in Water

    • dissociate – when ions separate from a solid being dissolved

    4.2.2 Molecular Compounds in Water

    • the molecular structure is maintained

    4.2.3 Strong and Weak Electrolytes

    • strong electrolytes – ionic compounds that exists entirely of ions in solution
    • weak electryolytes – molecular compounds that produce a small amound of ions
    • chemical equilibrium – equilibrium of forming ions and recrystalizing ions

    4.2: Precipitation Reactions

    \[AX + BY \rightarrow AY + BX\]

    • for methathesis to occur:
    1. the formation of an insoluble product
    2. the formation of either a weak electrolyte or a nonelectrolyte
    3. the formation of a gas that escapes from solution

    4.5.1 Precipitation Reactions

    • precipitate – insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution
    • solubility – amount of substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity

    4.5.2 Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds

    • all common ionic compounds of the alkali metal ions and of the ammonium ion are soluble in water

    4.5.3 Reactions in Which a Weak Electrolyte or Nonelectrolyte Forms

    • hydrogen and hydroxide react to form water
    • insoluble metal oxides react with acids

    4.3: Acid-Base Reactions

    4.3.1 Acids

    • substances that ionize to form hydrogen ions
    • proton donors

    4.3.2 Bases

    • substances that ionize to form hydroxide ions

    4.3.3 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

    • strong acid, strong base – strong electrolyte
    • weak acid, weak base – weak electrolyte

    4.3.4 Neutralization Reactions and Salts

    • neutralization reaction – when an acid and base are mixed
    • produces water and a salt

    4.4 Ionic Equations

    • molecular formula – and equation written to show the complete chemical formulas of reactants and products
    • spectator ions – ions that do not play a role in a reaction
    • net ionic equation – equation where the spectator ions are removed
    • only soluble strong electrolytes are written in ionic form

    4.4: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

    4.6.1 Reactions in Which a Gas Forms

    • carbonates and bicarbonates

    4.6.2 Oxidation and Reduction

    • oxidation – loss of electrons
    • reduction – gain of electrons

    4.6.3 Oxidation of Metals by Acids and Salts

    • whenever one substance is oxidized, some other substance must be reduced
    • metals react with acids to form salts and hydrogen gas

    4.6.4 The Activity Series

    • activity series – list of metals arranged in order of decreasing ease of oxidation
    • active metals – alkali metals and alkaline earth metals
    • any metal on the list can be oxidized by ions of elements below it

    4.5: Concentration of Solutions

    • solution – homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
    • solvent – component that is present in greatest quantity
    • solutes – substances dissolved in the solvent

    4.1.1 Molarity

    • concentration – the amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent or solution
    • molarity – number of moles of solute in a liter of solution

    4.1.2 Dilution

    • dilution - obtaining a lower concentration of a solution by adding water
    • moles solute before dilution = moles solute after dilution

    4.6: Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis

    4.7.1 Titrations

    • statndard solution – solution of known concentration
    • titration – a known solution that undergoes a specific chemical reaction of known stoichiometry with the solution of unknown concentration
    • equivalence point – stoichiometrically equivalent quantities of reactants are brought together
    • indicator – used to show the endpoint of the titration