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chemistry study of the composition, properties, and interactions of matter
hypothesis tentative explanation of observations that acts as a guide for gathering and checking information
law statement that summarizes a vast number of experimental observations, and describes or predicts some aspect of the natural world
macroscopic domain realm of everyday things that are large enough to sense directly by human sight and touch
microscopic domain realm of things that are much too small to be sensed directly
scientific method path of discovery that leads from question and observation to law or hypothesis to theory, combined with experimental verification of the hypothesis and any necessary modification of the theory
symbolic domain specialized language used to represent components of the macroscopic and microscopic domains, such as chemical symbols, chemical formulas, chemical equations, graphs, drawings, and calculations
theory well-substantiated, comprehensive, testable explanation of a particular aspect of nature
atom smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical combination
compound pure substance that can be decomposed into two or more elements
element substance that is composed of a single type of atom; a substance that cannot be decomposed by a chemical change
gas state in which matter has neither definite volume nor shape
heterogeneous mixture combination of substances with a composition that varies from point to point
homogeneous mixture (also, solution) combination of substances with a composition that is uniform throughout
liquid state of matter that has a definite volume but indefinite shape
law of conservation of matter when matter converts from one type to another or changes form, there is no detectable change in the total amount of matter present
mass fundamental property indicating amount of matter
matter anything that occupies space and has mass
mixture matter that can be separated into its components by physical means
molecule bonded collection of two or more atoms of the same or different elements
plasma gaseous state of matter containing a large number of electrically charged atoms and/or molecules
pure substance homogeneous substance that has a constant composition
solid state of matter that is rigid, has a definite shape, and has a fairly constant volume
weight force that gravity exerts on an object
chemical change change producing a different kind of matter from the original kind of matter
chemical property behavior that is related to the change of one kind of matter into another kind of matter
extensive property property of a substance that depends on the amount of the substance
intensive property property of a substance that is independent of the amount of the substance
physical change change in the state or properties of matter that does not involve a change in its chemical composition
physical property characteristic of matter that is not associated with any change in its chemical composition
Celsius (°C) unit of temperature; water freezes at 0 °C and boils at 100 °C on this scale
cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) volume of a cube with an edge length of exactly 1 cm
cubic meter (m3) SI unit of volume
density ratio of mass to volume for a substance or object
kelvin (K) SI unit of temperature; 273.15 K = 0 ºC
kilogram (kg) standard SI unit of mass; 1 kg = approximately 2.2 pounds
length measure of one dimension of an object
liter (L) (also, cubic decimeter) unit of volume; 1 L = 1,000 cm3
meter (m) standard metric and SI unit of length; 1 m = approximately 1.094 yards
milliliter (mL) 1/1,000 of a liter; equal to 1 cm3
second (s) SI unit of time
SI units (International System of Units) standards fixed by international agreement in the International System of Units (Le Système International d’Unités)
unit standard of comparison for measurements
volume amount of space occupied by an object
uncertainty estimate of amount by which measurement differs from true value
significant figures (also, significant digits) all of the measured digits in a determination, including the uncertain last digit
rounding procedure used to ensure that calculated results properly reflect the uncertainty in the measurements used in the calculation
precision how closely a measurement matches the same measurement when repeated
exact number number derived by counting or by definition
accuracy how closely a measurement aligns with a correct value
dimensional analysis (also, factor-label method) versatile mathematical approach that can be applied to computations ranging from simple unit conversions to more complex, multi-step calculations involving several different quantities
Fahrenheit unit of temperature; water freezes at 32 °F and boils at 212 °F on this scale
unit conversion factor ratio of equivalent quantities expressed with different units; used to convert from one unit to a different unit
Dalton’s atomic theory set of postulates that established the fundamental properties of atoms
law of constant composition (also, law of definite proportions) all samples of a pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass
law of multiple proportions when two elements react to form more than one compound, a fixed mass of one element will react with masses of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers
law of definite proportions (also, law of constant composition) all samples of a pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass
alpha particle (α particle) positively charged particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons
electron negatively charged, subatomic particle of relatively low mass located outside the nucleus
isotopes atoms that contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
neutron uncharged, subatomic particle located in the nucleus
proton positively charged, subatomic particle located in the nucleus
nucleus massive, positively charged center of an atom made up of protons and neutrons
anion negatively charged atom or molecule (contains more electrons than protons)
atomic mass average mass of atoms of an element, expressed in amu
atomic mass unit (amu) (also, unified atomic mass unit, u, or Dalton, Da) unit of mass equal to $$\dfrac{1}{12}$$ of the mass of a 12C atom
atomic number (Z) number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
cation positively charged atom or molecule (contains fewer electrons than protons)
chemical symbol one-, two-, or three-letter abbreviation used to represent an element or its atoms
Dalton (Da) alternative unit equivalent to the atomic mass unit
fundamental unit of charge (also called the elementary charge) equals the magnitude of the charge of an electron (e) with e = 1.602 $$\times$$ 10−19 C
ion electrically charged atom or molecule (contains unequal numbers of protons and electrons)
mass number (A) sum of the numbers of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom
unified atomic mass unit (u) alternative unit equivalent to the atomic mass unit
empirical formula formula showing the composition of a compound given as the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms
isomers compounds with the same chemical formula but different structures
molecular formula formula indicating the composition of a molecule of a compound and giving the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound.
spatial isomers compounds in which the relative orientations of the atoms in space differ
structural isomer one of two substances that have the same molecular formula but different physical and chemical properties because their atoms are bonded differently
structural formula shows the atoms in a molecule and how they are connected
actinide inner transition metal in the bottom of the bottom two rows of the periodic table
alkali metal element in group 1
alkaline earth metal element in group 2
chalcogen element in group 16
group vertical column of the periodic table
halogen element in group 17
inert gas (also, noble gas) element in group 18
inner transition metal (also, lanthanide or actinide) element in the bottom two rows; if in the first row, also called lanthanide, or if in the second row, also called actinide
lanthanide inner transition metal in the top of the bottom two rows of the periodic table
main-group element (also, representative element) element in columns 1, 2, and 12–18
metal element that is shiny, malleable, good conductor of heat and electricity
metalloid element that conducts heat and electricity moderately well, and possesses some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals
noble gas (also, inert gas) element in group 18
nonmetal element that appears dull, poor conductor of heat and electricity
period (also, series) horizontal row of the periodic table
periodic law properties of the elements are periodic function of their atomic numbers.
periodic table table of the elements that places elements with similar chemical properties close together
pnictogen element in group 15
representative element (also, main-group element) element in columns 1, 2, and 12–18
transition metal element in columns 3–11
series (also, period) horizontal row of the period table
covalent bond attractive force between the nuclei of a molecule’s atoms and pairs of electrons between the atoms
covalent compound (also, molecular compound) composed of molecules formed by atoms of two or more different elements
ionic bond electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions of an ionic compound
ionic compound compound composed of cations and anions combined in ratios, yielding an electrically neutral substance
molecular compound (also, covalent compound) composed of molecules formed by atoms of two or more different elements
monatomic ion ion composed of a single atom
polyatomic ion ion composed of more than one atom
oxyanion polyatomic anion composed of a central atom bonded to oxygen atoms
binary acid compound that contains hydrogen and one other element, bonded in a way that imparts acidic properties to the compound (ability to release H+ ions when dissolved in water)
binary compound compound containing two different elements.
oxyacid compound that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and one other element, bonded in a way that imparts acidic properties to the compound (ability to release H+ ions when dissolved in water)
nomenclature system of rules for naming objects of interest
Avogadro’s number (NA) experimentally determined value of the number of entities comprising 1 mole of substance, equal to 6.022 × 1023 mol−1
formula mass sum of the average masses for all atoms represented in a chemical formula; for covalent compounds, this is also the molecular mass
mole amount of substance containing the same number of atoms, molecules, ions, or other entities as the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of 12C
molar mass mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance
percent composition percentage by mass of the various elements in a compound
empirical formula mass sum of average atomic masses for all atoms represented in an empirical formula
aqueous solution solution for which water is the solvent
concentrated qualitative term for a solution containing solute at a relatively high concentration
concentration quantitative measure of the relative amounts of solute and solvent present in a solution
dilute qualitative term for a solution containing solute at a relatively low concentration
dilution process of adding solvent to a solution in order to lower the concentration of solutes
dissolved describes the process by which solute components are dispersed in a solvent
molarity (M) unit of concentration, defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution
solute solution component present in a concentration less than that of the solvent
solvent solution component present in a concentration that is higher relative to other components
mass percentage ratio of solute-to-solution mass expressed as a percentage
mass-volume percent ratio of solute mass to solution volume, expressed as a percentage
parts per billion (ppb) ratio of solute-to-solution mass multiplied by 109
parts per million (ppm) ratio of solute-to-solution mass multiplied by 106
volume percentage ratio of solute-to-solution volume expressed as a percentage
balanced equation chemical equation with equal numbers of atoms for each element in the reactant and product
chemical equation symbolic representation of a chemical reaction
coefficient number placed in front of symbols or formulas in a chemical equation to indicate their relative amount
complete ionic equation chemical equation in which all dissolved ionic reactants and products, including spectator ions, are explicitly represented by formulas for their dissociated ions
molecular equation chemical equation in which all reactants and products are represented as neutral substances
net ionic equation chemical equation in which only those dissolved ionic reactants and products that undergo a chemical or physical change are represented (excludes spectator ions)
product substance formed by a chemical or physical change; shown on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation
reactant substance undergoing a chemical or physical change; shown on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation
spectator ion ion that does not undergo a chemical or physical change during a reaction, but its presence is required to maintain charge neutrality
actual yield amount of product formed in a reaction
excess reactant reactant present in an amount greater than required by the reaction stoichiometry
limiting reactant reactant present in an amount lower than required by the reaction stoichiometry, thus limiting the amount of product generated
percent yield measure of the efficiency of a reaction, expressed as a percentage of the theoretical yield
theoretical yield amount of product that may be produced from a given amount of reactant(s) according to the reaction stoichiometry
analyte chemical species of interest
buret device used for the precise delivery of variable liquid volumes, such as in a titration analysis
combustion analysis gravimetric technique used to determine the elemental composition of a compound via the collection and weighing of its gaseous combustion products
end point measured volume of titrant solution that yields the change in sample solution appearance or other property expected for stoichiometric equivalence (see equivalence point)
equivalence point volume of titrant solution required to react completely with the analyte in a titration analysis; provides a stoichiometric amount of titrant for the sample’s analyte according to the titration reaction
gravimetric analysis quantitative chemical analysis method involving the separation of an analyte from a sample by a physical or chemical process and subsequent mass measurements of the analyte, reaction product, and/or sample
indicator substance added to the sample in a titration analysis to permit visual detection of the end point
quantitative analysis the determination of the amount or concentration of a substance in a sample
titrant solution containing a known concentration of substance that will react with the analyte in a titration analysis
titration analysis quantitative chemical analysis method that involves measuring the volume of a reactant solution required to completely react with the analyte in a sample
calorie (cal) unit of heat or other energy; the amount of energy required to raise 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius; 1 cal is defined as 4.184 J
endothermic process chemical reaction or physical change that absorbs heat
energy capacity to supply heat or do work
exothermic process chemical reaction or physical change that releases heat
heat (q) transfer of thermal energy between two bodies
heat capacity (C) extensive property of a body of matter that represents the quantity of heat required to increase its temperature by 1 degree Celsius (or 1 kelvin)
joule (J) SI unit of energy; 1 joule is the kinetic energy of an object with a mass of 2 kilograms moving with a velocity of 1 meter per second, 1 J = 1 kg m2/s and 4.184 J = 1 cal
kinetic energy energy of a moving body, in joules, equal to $$\dfrac{1}{2}mv^2$$ (where m = mass and v = velocity)
potential energy energy of a particle or system of particles derived from relative position, composition, or condition
specific heat capacity (c) intensive property of a substance that represents the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the substance by 1 degree Celsius (or 1 kelvin)
temperature intensive property of matter that is a quantitative measure of “hotness” and “coldness”
thermal energy kinetic energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules
thermochemistry study of measuring the amount of heat absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or a physical change
work (w) energy transfer due to changes in external, macroscopic variables such as pressure and volume; or causing matter to move against an opposing force
bomb calorimeter device designed to measure the energy change for processes occurring under conditions of constant volume; commonly used for reactions involving solid and gaseous reactants or products
calorimeter device used to measure the amount of heat absorbed or released in a chemical or physical process
calorimetry process of measuring the amount of heat involved in a chemical or physical process
nutritional calorie (Calorie) unit used for quantifying energy provided by digestion of foods, defined as 1000 cal or 1 kcal
surroundings all matter other than the system being studied
system portion of matter undergoing a chemical or physical change being studied
chemical thermodynamics area of science that deals with the relationships between heat, work, and all forms of energy associated with chemical and physical processes
enthalpy (H) sum of a system’s internal energy and the mathematical product of its pressure and volume
enthalpy change (ΔH) heat released or absorbed by a system under constant pressure during a chemical or physical process
expansion work (pressure-volume work) work done as a system expands or contracts against external pressure
first law of thermodynamics internal energy of a system changes due to heat flow in or out of the system or work done on or by the system
Hess’s law if a process can be represented as the sum of several steps, the enthalpy change of the process equals the sum of the enthalpy changes of the steps
hydrocarbon compound composed only of hydrogen and carbon; the major component of fossil fuels
internal energy (U) total of all possible kinds of energy present in a substance or substances
standard enthalpy of combustion ($$ΔH^\circ_\ce{c}$$) heat released when one mole of a compound undergoes complete combustion under standard conditions
standard enthalpy of formation ($$ΔH^\circ_\ce{f}$$) enthalpy change of a chemical reaction in which 1 mole of a pure substance is formed from its elements in their most stable states under standard state conditions
standard state set of physical conditions as accepted as common reference conditions for reporting thermodynamic properties; 1 bar of pressure, and solutions at 1 molar concentrations, usually at a temperature of 298.15 K
state function property depending only on the state of a system, and not the path taken to reach that state
amplitude extent of the displacement caused by a wave (for sinusoidal waves, it is one-half the difference from the peak height to the trough depth, and the intensity is proportional to the square of the amplitude)
blackbody idealized perfect absorber of all incident electromagnetic radiation; such bodies emit electromagnetic radiation in characteristic continuous spectra called blackbody radiation
continuous spectrum electromagnetic radiation given off in an unbroken series of wavelengths (e.g., white light from the sun)
electromagnetic radiation energy transmitted by waves that have an electric-field component and a magnetic-field component
electromagnetic spectrum range of energies that electromagnetic radiation can comprise, including radio, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays; since electromagnetic radiation energy is proportional to the frequency and inversely proportional to the wavelength, the spectrum can also be specified by ranges of frequencies or wavelengths
frequency ($$\nu$$) number of wave cycles (peaks or troughs) that pass a specified point in space per unit time
hertz (Hz) the unit of frequency, which is the number of cycles per second, s−1
intensity property of wave-propagated energy related to the amplitude of the wave, such as brightness of light or loudness of sound
interference pattern pattern typically consisting of alternating bright and dark fringes; it results from constructive and destructive interference of waves
line spectrum electromagnetic radiation emitted at discrete wavelengths by a specific atom (or atoms) in an excited state
node any point of a standing wave with zero amplitude
photon smallest possible packet of electromagnetic radiation, a particle of light
quantization occurring only in specific discrete values, not continuous
standing wave (also, stationary wave) localized wave phenomenon characterized by discrete wavelengths determined by the boundary conditions used to generate the waves; standing waves are inherently quantized
wave oscillation that can transport energy from one point to another in space
wavelength (λ) distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
wave-particle duality term used to describe the fact that elementary particles including matter exhibit properties of both particles (including localized position, momentum) and waves (including nonlocalization, wavelength, frequency)
Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom structural model in which an electron moves around the nucleus only in circular orbits, each with a specific allowed radius; the orbiting electron does not normally emit electromagnetic radiation, but does so when changing from one orbit to another.
excited state state having an energy greater than the ground-state energy
ground state state in which the electrons in an atom, ion, or molecule have the lowest energy possible
quantum number integer number having only specific allowed values and used to characterize the arrangement of electrons in an atom
angular momentum quantum number (l) quantum number distinguishing the different shapes of orbitals; it is also a measure of the orbital angular momentum
atomic orbital mathematical function that describes the behavior of an electron in an atom (also called the wavefunction), it can be used to find the probability of locating an electron in a specific region around the nucleus, as well as other dynamical variables
d orbital region of space with high electron density that is either four lobed or contains a dumbbell and torus shape; describes orbitals with l = 2. An electron in this orbital is called a d electron
electron density a measure of the probability of locating an electron in a particular region of space, it is equal to the squared absolute value of the wave function ψ
f orbital multilobed region of space with high electron density, describes orbitals with l = 3. An electron in this orbital is called an f electron
Heisenberg uncertainty principle rule stating that it is impossible to exactly determine both certain conjugate dynamical properties such as the momentum and the position of a particle at the same time. The uncertainty principle is a consequence of quantum particles exhibiting wave–particle duality
magnetic quantum number (ml) quantum number signifying the orientation of an atomic orbital around the nucleus; orbitals having different values of ml but the same subshell value of l have the same energy (are degenerate), but this degeneracy can be removed by application of an external magnetic field
p orbital dumbbell-shaped region of space with high electron density, describes orbitals with l = 1. An electron in this orbital is called a p electron
Pauli exclusion principle specifies that no two electrons in an atom can have the same value for all four quantum numbers
principal quantum number (n) quantum number specifying the shell an electron occupies in an atom
quantum mechanics field of study that includes quantization of energy, wave-particle duality, and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to describe matter
s orbital spherical region of space with high electron density, describes orbitals with l = 0. An electron in this orbital is called an s electron
shell set of orbitals with the same principal quantum number, n
spin quantum number (ms) number specifying the electron spin direction, either $$+\dfrac{1}{2}$$ or $$−\dfrac{1}{2}$$
subshell set of orbitals in an atom with the same values of n and l
wavefunction (ψ) mathematical description of an atomic orbital that describes the shape of the orbital; it can be used to calculate the probability of finding the electron at any given location in the orbital, as well as dynamical variables such as the energy and the angular momentum
Aufbau principle procedure in which the electron configuration of the elements is determined by “building” them in order of atomic numbers, adding one proton to the nucleus and one electron to the proper subshell at a time
core electron electron in an atom that occupies the orbitals of the inner shells
electron configuration electronic structure of an atom in its ground state given as a listing of the orbitals occupied by the electrons
Hund’s rule every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin
orbital diagram pictorial representation of the electron configuration showing each orbital as a box and each electron as an arrow
valence electrons electrons in the outermost or valence shell (highest value of n) of a ground-state atom; determine how an element reacts
valence shell outermost shell of electrons in a ground-state atom; for main group elements, the orbitals with the highest n level (s and p subshells) are in the valence shell, while for transition metals, the highest energy s and d subshells make up the valence shell and for inner transition elements, the highest s, d, and f subshells are included
covalent radius one-half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms when they are joined by a covalent bond
effective nuclear charge charge that leads to the Coulomb force exerted by the nucleus on an electron, calculated as the nuclear charge minus shielding
electron affinity energy required to add an electron to a gaseous atom to form an anion
ionization energy energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion. The associated number (e.g., second ionization energy) corresponds to the charge of the ion produced (X2+)
isoelectronic group of ions or atoms that have identical electron configurations
inert pair effect tendency of heavy atoms to form ions in which their valence s electrons are not lost
ionic bond strong electrostatic force of attraction between cations and anions in an ionic compound
bond length distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms at which the lowest potential energy is achieved
covalent bond bond formed when electrons are shared between atoms
electronegativity tendency of an atom to attract electrons in a bond to itself
polar covalent bond covalent bond between atoms of different electronegativities; a covalent bond with a positive end and a negative end
pure covalent bond (also, nonpolar covalent bond) covalent bond between atoms of identical electronegativities
double bond covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
free radical molecule that contains an odd number of electrons
hypervalent molecule molecule containing at least one main group element that has more than eight electrons in its valence shell
Lewis structure diagram showing lone pairs and bonding pairs of electrons in a molecule or an ion
Lewis symbol symbol for an element or monatomic ion that uses a dot to represent each valence electron in the element or ion
lone pair two (a pair of) valence electrons that are not used to form a covalent bond
octet rule guideline that states main group atoms will form structures in which eight valence electrons interact with each nucleus, counting bonding electrons as interacting with both atoms connected by the bond
single bond bond in which a single pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
triple bond bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
formal charge charge that would result on an atom by taking the number of valence electrons on the neutral atom and subtracting the nonbonding electrons and the number of bonds (one-half of the bonding electrons)
molecular structure arrangement of atoms in a molecule or ion
resonance situation in which one Lewis structure is insufficient to describe the bonding in a molecule and the average of multiple structures is observed
resonance forms two or more Lewis structures that have the same arrangement of atoms but different arrangements of electrons
resonance hybrid average of the resonance forms shown by the individual Lewis structures
bond energy (also, bond dissociation energy) energy required to break a covalent bond in a gaseous substance
Born-Haber cycle thermochemical cycle relating the various energetic steps involved in the formation of an ionic solid from the relevant elements
lattice energy (ΔHlattice) energy required to separate one mole of an ionic solid into its component gaseous ions
axial position location in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry in which there is another atom at a 180° angle and the equatorial positions are at a 90° angle
bond angle angle between any two covalent bonds that share a common atom
bond distance (also, bond length) distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms
bond dipole moment separation of charge in a bond that depends on the difference in electronegativity and the bond distance represented by partial charges or a vector
dipole moment property of a molecule that describes the separation of charge determined by the sum of the individual bond moments based on the molecular structure
electron-pair geometry arrangement around a central atom of all regions of electron density (bonds, lone pairs, or unpaired electrons)
equatorial position one of the three positions in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry with 120° angles between them; the axial positions are located at a 90° angle
linear shape in which two outside groups are placed on opposite sides of a central atom
molecular structure structure that includes only the placement of the atoms in the molecule
octahedral shape in which six outside groups are placed around a central atom such that a three-dimensional shape is generated with four groups forming a square and the other two forming the apex of two pyramids, one above and one below the square plane
polar molecule (also, dipole) molecule with an overall dipole moment
tetrahedral shape in which four outside groups are placed around a central atom such that a three-dimensional shape is generated with four corners and 109.5° angles between each pair and the central atom
trigonal bipyramidal shape in which five outside groups are placed around a central atom such that three form a flat triangle with 120° angles between each pair and the central atom, and the other two form the apex of two pyramids, one above and one below the triangular plane
trigonal planar shape in which three outside groups are placed in a flat triangle around a central atom with 120° angles between each pair and the central atom
valence shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) theory used to predict the bond angles in a molecule based on positioning regions of high electron density as far apart as possible to minimize electrostatic repulsion
vector quantity having magnitude and direction
overlap coexistence of orbitals from two different atoms sharing the same region of space, leading to the formation of a covalent bond
node plane separating different lobes of orbitals, where the probability of finding an electron is zero
pi bond (π bond) covalent bond formed by side-by-side overlap of atomic orbitals; the electron density is found on opposite sides of the internuclear axis
sigma bond (σ bond) covalent bond formed by overlap of atomic orbitals along the internuclear axis
valence bond theory description of bonding that involves atomic orbitals overlapping to form σ or π bonds, within which pairs of electrons are shared
atmosphere (atm) unit of pressure; 1 atm = 101,325 Pa
bar (bar or b) unit of pressure; 1 bar = 100,000 Pa
barometer device used to measure atmospheric pressure
hydrostatic pressure pressure exerted by a fluid due to gravity
manometer device used to measure the pressure of a gas trapped in a container
pascal (Pa) SI unit of pressure; 1 Pa = 1 N/m2
pounds per square inch (psi) unit of pressure common in the US
pressure force exerted per unit area
torr unit of pressure; $$\mathrm{1\: torr=\dfrac{1}{760}\,atm}$$
compressibility factor (Z) ratio of the experimentally measured molar volume for a gas to its molar volume as computed from the ideal gas equation
van der Waals equation modified version of the ideal gas equation containing additional terms to account for non-ideal gas behavior
dipole-dipole attraction intermolecular attraction between two permanent dipoles
dispersion force (also, London dispersion force) attraction between two rapidly fluctuating, temporary dipoles; significant only when particles are very close together
hydrogen bonding occurs when exceptionally strong dipoles attract; bonding that exists when hydrogen is bonded to one of the three most electronegative elements: F, O, or N
induced dipole temporary dipole formed when the electrons of an atom or molecule are distorted by the instantaneous dipole of a neighboring atom or molecule
instantaneous dipole temporary dipole that occurs for a brief moment in time when the electrons of an atom or molecule are distributed asymmetrically
intermolecular force noncovalent attractive force between atoms, molecules, and/or ions
polarizability measure of the ability of a charge to distort a molecule’s charge distribution (electron cloud)
van der Waals force attractive or repulsive force between molecules, including dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and London dispersion forces; does not include forces due to covalent or ionic bonding, or the attraction between ions and molecules
adhesive force force of attraction between molecules of different chemical identities
capillary action flow of liquid within a porous material due to the attraction of the liquid molecules to the surface of the material and to other liquid molecules
cohesive force force of attraction between identical molecules
surface tension energy required to increase the area, or length, of a liquid surface by a given amount
viscosity measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow
boiling point temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure of the gas above it
Clausius-Clapeyron equation mathematical relationship between the temperature, vapor pressure, and enthalpy of vaporization for a substance
condensation change from a gaseous to a liquid state
deposition change from a gaseous state directly to a solid state
dynamic equilibrium state of a system in which reciprocal processes are occurring at equal rates
freezing change from a liquid state to a solid state
freezing point temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium; see also melting point
melting change from a solid state to a liquid state
melting point temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium; see also freezing point
normal boiling point temperature at which a liquid’s vapor pressure equals 1 atm (760 torr)
sublimation change from solid state directly to gaseous state
vapor pressure (also, equilibrium vapor pressure) pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with a solid or a liquid at a given temperature
vaporization change from liquid state to gaseous state
critical point temperature and pressure above which a gas cannot be condensed into a liquid
phase diagram pressure-temperature graph summarizing conditions under which the phases of a substance can exist
supercritical fluid substance at a temperature and pressure higher than its critical point; exhibits properties intermediate between those of gaseous and liquid states
triple point temperature and pressure at which the vapor, liquid, and solid phases of a substance are in equilibrium
amorphous solid (also, noncrystalline solid) solid in which the particles lack an ordered internal structure
covalent network solid solid whose particles are held together by covalent bonds
crystalline solid solid in which the particles are arranged in a definite repeating pattern
interstitial sites spaces between the regular particle positions in any array of atoms or ions
ionic solid solid composed of positive and negative ions held together by strong electrostatic attractions
metallic solid solid composed of metal atoms
molecular solid solid composed of neutral molecules held together by intermolecular forces of attraction
vacancy defect that occurs when a position that should contain an atom or ion is vacant
body-centered cubic (BCC) solid crystalline structure that has a cubic unit cell with lattice points at the corners and in the center of the cell
body-centered cubic unit cell simplest repeating unit of a body-centered cubic crystal; it is a cube containing lattice points at each corner and in the center of the cube
Bragg equation equation that relates the angles at which X-rays are diffracted by the atoms within a crystal
coordination number number of atoms closest to any given atom in a crystal or to the central metal atom in a complex
cubic closest packing (CCP) crystalline structure in which planes of closely packed atoms or ions are stacked as a series of three alternating layers of different relative orientations (ABC)
diffraction redirection of electromagnetic radiation that occurs when it encounters a physical barrier of appropriate dimensions
face-centered cubic (FCC) solid crystalline structure consisting of a cubic unit cell with lattice points on the corners and in the center of each face
face-centered cubic unit cell simplest repeating unit of a face-centered cubic crystal; it is a cube containing lattice points at each corner and in the center of each face
hexagonal closest packing (HCP) crystalline structure in which close packed layers of atoms or ions are stacked as a series of two alternating layers of different relative orientations (AB)
hole (also, interstice) space between atoms within a crystal
isomorphous possessing the same crystalline structure
octahedral hole open space in a crystal at the center of six particles located at the corners of an octahedron
simple cubic unit cell (also, primitive cubic unit cell) unit cell in the simple cubic structure
simple cubic structure crystalline structure with a cubic unit cell with lattice points only at the corners
space lattice all points within a crystal that have identical environments
tetrahedral hole tetrahedral space formed by four atoms or ions in a crystal
unit cell smallest portion of a space lattice that is repeated in three dimensions to form the entire lattice
X-ray crystallography experimental technique for determining distances between atoms in a crystal by measuring the angles at which X-rays are diffracted when passing through the crystal
alloy solid mixture of a metallic element and one or more additional elements
ideal solution solution that forms with no accompanying energy change
solvation exothermic process in which intermolecular attractive forces between the solute and solvent in a solution are established
spontaneous process physical or chemical change that occurs without the addition of energy from an external source
dissociation physical process accompanying the dissolution of an ionic compound in which the compound’s constituent ions are solvated and dispersed throughout the solution
electrolyte substance that produces ions when dissolved in water
ion-dipole attraction electrostatic attraction between an ion and a polar molecule
nonelectrolyte substance that does not produce ions when dissolved in water
strong electrolyte substance that dissociates or ionizes completely when dissolved in water
weak electrolyte substance that ionizes only partially when dissolved in water
Henry’s law law stating the proportional relationship between the concentration of dissolved gas in a solution and the partial pressure of the gas in contact with the solution
immiscible of negligible mutual solubility; typically refers to liquid substances
miscible mutually soluble in all proportions; typically refers to liquid substances
partially miscible of moderate mutual solubility; typically refers to liquid substances
saturated of concentration equal to solubility; containing the maximum concentration of solute possible for a given temperature and pressure
solubility extent to which a solute may be dissolved in water, or any solvent
supersaturated of concentration that exceeds solubility; a nonequilibrium state
unsaturated of concentration less than solubility
boiling point elevation elevation of the boiling point of a liquid by addition of a solute
boiling point elevation constant the proportionality constant in the equation relating boiling point elevation to solute molality; also known as the ebullioscopic constant
colligative property property of a solution that depends only on the concentration of a solute species
crenation process whereby biological cells become shriveled due to loss of water by osmosis
freezing point depression lowering of the freezing point of a liquid by addition of a solute
freezing point depression constant (also, cryoscopic constant) proportionality constant in the equation relating freezing point depression to solute molality
hemolysis rupture of red blood cells due to the accumulation of excess water by osmosis
hypertonic of greater osmotic pressure
hypotonic of less osmotic pressure
ion pair solvated anion/cation pair held together by moderate electrostatic attraction
isotonic of equal osmotic pressure
molality (m) a concentration unit defined as the ratio of the numbers of moles of solute to the mass of the solvent in kilograms
osmosis diffusion of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane
osmotic pressure (Π) opposing pressure required to prevent bulk transfer of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane
Raoult’s law the partial pressure exerted by a solution component is equal to the product of the component’s mole fraction in the solution and its equilibrium vapor pressure in the pure state
semipermeable membrane a membrane that selectively permits passage of certain ions or molecules
van’t Hoff factor (i) the ratio of the number of moles of particles in a solution to the number of moles of formula units dissolved in the solution
amphiphilic molecules possessing both hydrophobic (nonpolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) parts
colloid (also, colloidal dispersion) mixture in which relatively large solid or liquid particles are dispersed uniformly throughout a gas, liquid, or solid
dispersion medium solid, liquid, or gas in which colloidal particles are dispersed
dispersed phase substance present as relatively large solid or liquid particles in a colloid
emulsifying agent amphiphilic substance used to stabilize the particles of some emulsions
emulsion colloid formed from immiscible liquids
gel colloidal dispersion of a liquid in a solid
Tyndall effect scattering of visible light by a colloidal dispersion
average rate rate of a chemical reaction computed as the ratio of a measured change in amount or concentration of substance to the time interval over which the change occurred
initial rate instantaneous rate of a chemical reaction at t = 0 s (immediately after the reaction has begun)
instantaneous rate rate of a chemical reaction at any instant in time, determined by the slope of the line tangential to a graph of concentration as a function of time
rate of reaction measure of the speed at which a chemical reaction takes place
rate expression mathematical representation relating reaction rate to changes in amount, concentration, or pressure of reactant or product species per unit time
catalyst substance that increases the rate of a reaction without itself being consumed by the reaction
method of initial rates use of a more explicit algebraic method to determine the orders in a rate law
overall reaction order sum of the reaction orders for each substance represented in the rate law
rate constant (k) proportionality constant in the relationship between reaction rate and concentrations of reactants
rate law (also, rate equation) mathematical equation showing the dependence of reaction rate on the rate constant and the concentration of one or more reactants
reaction order value of an exponent in a rate law, expressed as an ordinal number (for example, zero order for 0, first order for 1, second order for 2, and so on)
half-life of a reaction (tl/2) time required for half of a given amount of reactant to be consumed
integrated rate law equation that relates the concentration of a reactant to elapsed time of reaction
activated complex (also, transition state) unstable combination of reactant species representing the highest energy state of a reaction system
activation energy (Ea) energy necessary in order for a reaction to take place
Arrhenius equation mathematical relationship between the rate constant and the activation energy of a reaction
collision theory model that emphasizes the energy and orientation of molecular collisions to explain and predict reaction kinetics
frequency factor (A) proportionality constant in the Arrhenius equation, related to the relative number of collisions having an orientation capable of leading to product formation
heterogeneous catalyst catalyst present in a different phase from the reactants, furnishing a surface at which a reaction can occur
homogeneous catalyst catalyst present in the same phase as the reactants
equilibrium in chemical reactions, the state in which the conversion of reactants into products and the conversion of products back into reactants occur simultaneously at the same rate; state of balance
reversible reaction chemical reaction that can proceed in both the forward and reverse directions under given conditions
equilibrium constant (K) value of the reaction quotient for a system at equilibrium
heterogeneous equilibria equilibria between reactants and products in different phases
homogeneous equilibria equilibria within a single phase
Kc equilibrium constant for reactions based on concentrations of reactants and products
KP equilibrium constant for gas-phase reactions based on partial pressures of reactants and products
law of mass action when a reversible reaction has attained equilibrium at a given temperature, the reaction quotient remains constant
reaction quotient (Q) ratio of the product of molar concentrations (or pressures) of the products to that of the reactants, each concentration (or pressure) being raised to the power equal to the coefficient in the equation
Le Chatelier's principle when a chemical system at equilibrium is disturbed, it returns to equilibrium by counteracting the disturbance
position of equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of components of a reaction at equilibrium (commonly used to describe conditions before a disturbance)
stress change to a reaction's conditions that may cause a shift in the equilibrium
acid ionization reaction involving the transfer of a proton from an acid to water, yielding hydronium ions and the conjugate base of the acid
amphiprotic species that may either gain or lose a proton in a reaction
amphoteric species that can act as either an acid or a base
autoionization reaction between identical species yielding ionic products; for water, this reaction involves transfer of protons to yield hydronium and hydroxide ions
base ionization reaction involving the transfer of a proton from water to a base, yielding hydroxide ions and the conjugate acid of the base
Brønsted-Lowry acid proton donor
Brønsted-Lowry base proton acceptor
conjugate acid substance formed when a base gains a proton
conjugate base substance formed when an acid loses a proton
ion-product constant for water (Kw) equilibrium constant for the autoionization of water
acidic describes a solution in which [H3O+] > [OH]
basic describes a solution in which [H3O+] < [OH]
neutral describes a solution in which [H3O+] = [OH]
pH logarithmic measure of the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution
pOH logarithmic measure of the concentration of hydroxide ions in a solution
acid ionization constant (Ka) equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak acid
base ionization constant (Kb) equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak base
leveling effect of water any acid stronger than $$\ce{H3O+}$$, or any base stronger than OH will react with water to form $$\ce{H3O+}$$, or OH, respectively; water acts as a base to make all strong acids appear equally strong, and it acts as an acid to make all strong bases appear equally strong
oxyacid compound containing a nonmetal and one or more hydroxyl groups
percent ionization ratio of the concentration of the ionized acid to the initial acid concentration, times 100
diprotic acid acid containing two ionizable hydrogen atoms per molecule. A diprotic acid ionizes in two steps
diprotic base base capable of accepting two protons. The protons are accepted in two steps
monoprotic acid acid containing one ionizable hydrogen atom per molecule
stepwise ionization process in which an acid is ionized by losing protons sequentially
triprotic acid acid that contains three ionizable hydrogen atoms per molecule; ionization of triprotic acids occurs in three steps
buffer capacity amount of an acid or base that can be added to a volume of a buffer solution before its pH changes significantly (usually by one pH unit)
buffer mixture of a weak acid or a weak base and the salt of its conjugate; the pH of a buffer resists change when small amounts of acid or base are added
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation equation used to calculate the pH of buffer solutions
acid-base indicator organic acid or base whose color changes depending on the pH of the solution it is in
color-change interval range in pH over which the color change of an indicator takes place
titration curve plot of the pH of a solution of acid or base versus the volume of base or acid added during a titration
common ion effect effect on equilibrium when a substance with an ion in common with the dissolved species is added to the solution; causes a decrease in the solubility of an ionic species, or a decrease in the ionization of a weak acid or base
molar solubility solubility of a compound expressed in units of moles per liter (mol/L)
selective precipitation process in which ions are separated using differences in their solubility with a given precipitating reagent
solubility product (Ksp) equilibrium constant for the dissolution of a slightly soluble electrolyte
multiple equilibrium system characterized by more than one state of balance between a slightly soluble ionic solid and an aqueous solution of ions working simultaneously
nonspontaneous process process that requires continual input of energy from an external source
spontaneous change process that takes place without a continuous input of energy from an external source
entropy (S) state function that is a measure of the matter and/or energy dispersal within a system, determined by the number of system microstates often described as a measure of the disorder of the system
microstate (W) possible configuration or arrangement of matter and energy within a system
reversible process process that takes place so slowly as to be capable of reversing direction in response to an infinitesimally small change in conditions; hypothetical construct that can only be approximated by real processes removed
second law of thermodynamics entropy of the universe increases for a spontaneous process
standard entropy (S°) entropy for a substance at 1 bar pressure; tabulated values are usually determined at 298.15 K and denoted $$S^\circ_{298}$$
standard entropy change (ΔS°) change in entropy for a reaction calculated using the standard entropies, usually at room temperature and denoted $$ΔS^\circ_{298}$$
third law of thermodynamics entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero (0 K) is zero
Gibbs free energy change (G) thermodynamic property defined in terms of system enthalpy and entropy; all spontaneous processes involve a decrease in G
standard free energy change (ΔG°) change in free energy for a process occurring under standard conditions (1 bar pressure for gases, 1 M concentration for solutions)
standard free energy of formation $$(ΔG^\circ_\ce{f})$$ change in free energy accompanying the formation of one mole of substance from its elements in their standard states
circuit path taken by a current as it flows because of an electrical potential difference
current flow of electrical charge; the SI unit of charge is the coulomb (C) and current is measured in amperes $$\mathrm{\left(1\: A=1\:\dfrac{C}{s}\right)}$$
electrical potential energy per charge; in electrochemical systems, it depends on the way the charges are distributed within the system; the SI unit of electrical potential is the volt $$\mathrm{\left(1\: V=1\:\dfrac{J}{C}\right)}$$
half-reaction method method that produces a balanced overall oxidation-reduction reaction by splitting the reaction into an oxidation “half” and reduction “half,” balancing the two half-reactions, and then combining the oxidation half-reaction and reduction half-reaction in such a way that the number of electrons generated by the oxidation is exactly canceled by the number of electrons required by the reduction
oxidation half-reaction the “half” of an oxidation-reduction reaction involving oxidation; the half-reaction in which electrons appear as products; balanced when each atom type, as well as the charge, is balanced
reduction half-reaction the “half” of an oxidation-reduction reaction involving reduction; the half-reaction in which electrons appear as reactants; balanced when each atom type, as well as the charge, is balanced
active electrode electrode that participates in the oxidation-reduction reaction of an electrochemical cell; the mass of an active electrode changes during the oxidation-reduction reaction
anode electrode in an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs; information about the anode is recorded on the left side of the salt bridge in cell notation
cathode electrode in an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs; information about the cathode is recorded on the right side of the salt bridge in cell notation
cell notation shorthand way to represent the reactions in an electrochemical cell
cell potential difference in electrical potential that arises when dissimilar metals are connected; the driving force for the flow of charge (current) in oxidation-reduction reactions
galvanic cell electrochemical cell that involves a spontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction; electrochemical cells with positive cell potentials; also called a voltaic cell
inert electrode electrode that allows current to flow, but that does not otherwise participate in the oxidation-reduction reaction in an electrochemical cell; the mass of an inert electrode does not change during the oxidation-reduction reaction; inert electrodes are often made of platinum or gold because these metals are chemically unreactive.
voltaic cell another name for a galvanic cell
standard cell potential $$(E^\circ_\ce{cell})$$ the cell potential when all reactants and products are in their standard states (1 bar or 1 atm or gases; 1 M for solutes), usually at 298.15 K; can be calculated by subtracting the standard reduction potential for the half-reaction at the anode from the standard reduction potential for the half-reaction occurring at the cathode
standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) the electrode consists of hydrogen gas bubbling through hydrochloric acid over an inert platinum electrode whose reduction at standard conditions is assigned a value of 0 V; the reference point for standard reduction potentials
standard reduction potential (E°) the value of the reduction under standard conditions (1 bar or 1 atm for gases; 1 M for solutes) usually at 298.15 K; tabulated values used to calculate standard cell potentials
concentration cell galvanic cell in which the two half-cells are the same except for the concentration of the solutes; spontaneous when the overall reaction is the dilution of the solute
electrical work (wele) negative of total charge times the cell potential; equal to wmax for the system, and so equals the free energy change (ΔG)
Faraday’s constant (F) charge on 1 mol of electrons; F = 96,485 C/mol e
Nernst equation equation that relates the logarithm of the reaction quotient (Q) to nonstandard cell potentials; can be used to relate equilibrium constants to standard cell potentials
cathodic protection method of protecting metal by using a sacrificial anode and effectively making the metal that needs protecting the cathode, thus preventing its oxidation
corrosion degradation of metal through an electrochemical process
galvanized iron method for protecting iron by covering it with zinc, which will oxidize before the iron; zinc-plated iron
sacrificial anode more active, inexpensive metal used as the anode in cathodic protection; frequently made from magnesium or zinc
alkaline earth metal any of the metals (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium) occupying group 2 of the periodic table; they are reactive, divalent metals that form basic oxides
allotropes two or more forms of the same element, in the same physical state, with different chemical structures
bismuth heaviest member of group 15; a less reactive metal than other representative metals
metal (representative) atoms of the metallic elements of groups 1, 2, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, which form ionic compounds by losing electrons from their outer s or p orbitals
metalloid element that has properties that are between those of metals and nonmetals; these elements are typically semiconductors
passivation metals with a protective nonreactive film of oxide or other compound that creates a barrier for chemical reactions; physical or chemical removal of the passivating film allows the metals to demonstrate their expected chemical reactivity
representative element element where the s and p orbitals are filling
representative metal metal among the representative elements
chemical reduction method of preparing a representative metal using a reducing agent
Downs cell electrochemical cell used for the commercial preparation of metallic sodium (and chlorine) from molten sodium chloride
Hall–Héroult cell electrolysis apparatus used to isolate pure aluminum metal from a solution of alumina in molten cryolite
Pidgeon process chemical reduction process used to produce magnesium through the thermal reaction of magnesium oxide with silicon
amorphous solid material such as a glass that does not have a regular repeating component to its three-dimensional structure; a solid but not a crystal
borate compound containing boron-oxygen bonds, typically with clusters or chains as a part of the chemical structure
polymorph variation in crystalline structure that results in different physical properties for the resulting compound
silicate compound containing silicon-oxygen bonds, with silicate tetrahedra connected in rings, sheets, or three-dimensional networks, depending on the other elements involved in the formation of the compounds
acid anhydride compound that reacts with water to form an acid or acidic solution
disproportionation reaction chemical reaction where a single reactant is simultaneously reduced and oxidized; it is both the reducing agent and the oxidizing agent
Haber process main industrial process used to produce ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen; involves the use of an iron catalyst and elevated temperatures and pressures
hydrogen halide binary compound formed between hydrogen and the halogens: HF, HCl, HBr, and HI
hydrogenation addition of hydrogen (H2) to reduce a compound
bicarbonate anion salt of the hydrogen carbonate ion, $$\ce{HCO3-}$$
carbonate salt of the anion $$\ce{CO3^2-}$$; often formed by the reaction of carbon dioxide with bases
hydrogen carbonate salt of carbonic acid, H2CO3 (containing the anion $$\ce{HCO3-}$$) in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced; an acid carbonate; also known as bicarbonate ion
nitrogen fixation formation of nitrogen compounds from molecular nitrogen
base anhydride metal oxide that behaves as a base towards acids
chlor-alkali process electrolysis process for the synthesis of chlorine and sodium hydroxide
hydrogen sulfate $$\ce{HSO4-}$$ ion
hydrogen sulfite $$\ce{HSO3-}$$ ion
hydroxide compound of a metal with the hydroxide ion OH or the group −OH
nitrate $$\ce{NO3-}$$ ion; salt of nitric acid
Ostwald process industrial process used to convert ammonia into nitric acid
oxide binary compound of oxygen with another element or group, typically containing O2− ions or the group –O– or =O
ozone allotrope of oxygen; O3
peroxide molecule containing two oxygen atoms bonded together or as the anion, $$\ce{O2^2-}$$
photosynthesis process whereby light energy promotes the reaction of water and carbon dioxide to form carbohydrates and oxygen; this allows photosynthetic organisms to store energy
sulfate $$\ce{SO4^2-}$$ ion
sulfite $$\ce{SO3^2-}$$ ion
superoxide oxide containing the anion $$\ce{O2-}$$
Frasch process important in the mining of free sulfur from enormous underground deposits
halide compound containing an anion of a group 17 element in the 1− oxidation state (fluoride, F; chloride, Cl; bromide, Br; and iodide, I)
interhalogen compound formed from two or more different halogens
actinide series (also, actinoid series) actinium and the elements in the second row or the f-block, atomic numbers 89–103
coordination compound stable compound in which the central metal atom or ion acts as a Lewis acid and accepts one or more pairs of electrons
d-block element one of the elements in groups 3–11 with valence electrons in d orbitals
f-block element (also, inner transition element) one of the elements with atomic numbers 58–71 or 90–103 that have valence electrons in f orbitals; they are frequently shown offset below the periodic table
first transition series transition elements in the fourth period of the periodic table (first row of the d-block), atomic numbers 21–29
fourth transition series transition elements in the seventh period of the periodic table (fourth row of the d-block), atomic numbers 89 and 104–111
hydrometallurgy process in which a metal is separated from a mixture by first converting it into soluble ions, extracting the ions, and then reducing the ions to precipitate the pure metal
lanthanide series (also, lanthanoid series) lanthanum and the elements in the first row or the f-block, atomic numbers 57–71
platinum metals group of six transition metals consisting of ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, iridium, palladium, and platinum that tend to occur in the same minerals and demonstrate similar chemical properties
rare earth element collection of 17 elements including the lanthanides, scandium, and yttrium that often occur together and have similar chemical properties, making separation difficult
second transition series transition elements in the fifth period of the periodic table (second row of the d-block), atomic numbers 39–47
smelting process of extracting a pure metal from a molten ore
steel material made from iron by removing impurities in the iron and adding substances that produce alloys with properties suitable for specific uses
superconductor material that conducts electricity with no resistance
third transition series transition elements in the sixth period of the periodic table (third row of the d-block), atomic numbers 57 and 72–79
bidentate ligand ligand that coordinates to one central metal through coordinate bonds from two different atoms
central metal ion or atom to which one or more ligands is attached through coordinate covalent bonds
chelate complex formed from a polydentate ligand attached to a central metal
chelating ligand ligand that attaches to a central metal ion by bonds from two or more donor atoms
cis configuration configuration of a geometrical isomer in which two similar groups are on the same side of an imaginary reference line on the molecule
coordination compound substance consisting of atoms, molecules, or ions attached to a central atom through Lewis acid-base interactions
coordination number number of coordinate covalent bonds to the central metal atom in a complex or the number of closest contacts to an atom in a crystalline form
coordination sphere central metal atom or ion plus the attached ligands of a complex
donor atom atom in a ligand with a lone pair of electrons that forms a coordinate covalent bond to a central metal
ionization isomer (or coordination isomer) isomer in which an anionic ligand is replaced by the counter ion in the inner coordination sphere
ligand ion or neutral molecule attached to the central metal ion in a coordination compound
linkage isomer coordination compound that possesses a ligand that can bind to the transition metal in two different ways (CN vs. NC)
monodentate ligand that attaches to a central metal through just one coordinate covalent bond
optical isomer (also, enantiomer) molecule that is a nonsuperimposable mirror image with identical chemical and physical properties, except when it reacts with other optical isomers
polydentate ligand ligand that is attached to a central metal ion by bonds from two or more donor atoms, named with prefixes specifying how many donors are present (e.g., hexadentate = six coordinate bonds formed)
trans configuration configuration of a geometrical isomer in which two similar groups are on opposite sides of an imaginary reference line on the molecule
crystal field splitting (Δoct) difference in energy between the t2g and eg sets or t and e sets of orbitals
crystal field theory model that explains the energies of the orbitals in transition metals in terms of electrostatic interactions with the ligands but does not include metal ligand bonding
eg orbitals set of two d orbitals that are oriented on the Cartesian axes for coordination complexes; in octahedral complexes, they are higher in energy than the t2g orbitals
geometric isomers isomers that differ in the way in which atoms are oriented in space relative to each other, leading to different physical and chemical properties
high-spin complex complex in which the electrons maximize the total electron spin by singly populating all of the orbitals before pairing two electrons into the lower-energy orbitals
low-spin complex complex in which the electrons minimize the total electron spin by pairing in the lower-energy orbitals before populating the higher-energy orbitals
pairing energy (P) energy required to place two electrons with opposite spins into a single orbital
spectrochemical series ranking of ligands according to the magnitude of the crystal field splitting they induce
strong-field ligand ligand that causes larger crystal field splittings
t2g orbitals set of three d orbitals aligned between the Cartesian axes for coordination complexes; in octahedral complexes, they are lowered in energy compared to the eg orbitals according to CFT
weak-field ligand ligand that causes small crystal field splittings
addition reaction reaction in which a double carbon-carbon bond forms a single carbon-carbon bond by the addition of a reactant. Typical reaction for an alkene.
alkane molecule consisting of only carbon and hydrogen atoms connected by single (σ) bonds
alkene molecule consisting of carbon and hydrogen containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond
alkyl group substituent, consisting of an alkane missing one hydrogen atom, attached to a larger structure
alkyne molecule consisting of carbon and hydrogen containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond
aromatic hydrocarbon cyclic molecule consisting of carbon and hydrogen with delocalized alternating carbon-carbon single and double bonds, resulting in enhanced stability
functional group part of an organic molecule that imparts a specific chemical reactivity to the molecule
organic compound natural or synthetic compound that contains carbon
saturated hydrocarbon molecule containing carbon and hydrogen that has only single bonds between carbon atoms
skeletal structure shorthand method of drawing organic molecules in which carbon atoms are represented by the ends of lines and bends in between lines, and hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms are not shown (but are understood to be present by the context of the structure)
substituent branch or functional group that replaces hydrogen atoms in a larger hydrocarbon chain
substitution reaction reaction in which one atom replaces another in a molecule
alcohol organic compound with a hydroxyl group (–OH) bonded to a carbon atom
ether organic compound with an oxygen atom that is bonded to two carbon atoms
amine organic molecule in which a nitrogen atom is bonded to one or more alkyl group
amide organic molecule that features a nitrogen atom connected to the carbon atom in a carbonyl group
band of stability (also, belt of stability, zone of stability, or valley of stability) region of graph of number of protons versus number of neutrons containing stable (nonradioactive) nuclides
binding energy per nucleon total binding energy for the nucleus divided by the number of nucleons in the nucleus
electron volt (eV) measurement unit of nuclear binding energies, with 1 eV equaling the amount energy due to the moving an electron across an electric potential difference of 1 volt
magic number nuclei with specific numbers of nucleons that are within the band of stability
mass defect difference between the mass of an atom and the summed mass of its constituent subatomic particles (or the mass “lost” when nucleons are brought together to form a nucleus)
mass-energy equivalence equation Albert Einstein’s relationship showing that mass and energy are equivalent
nuclear binding energy energy lost when an atom’s nucleons are bound together (or the energy needed to break a nucleus into its constituent protons and neutrons)
nuclear chemistry study of the structure of atomic nuclei and processes that change nuclear structure
nucleon collective term for protons and neutrons in a nucleus
nuclide nucleus of a particular isotope
radioactivity phenomenon exhibited by an unstable nucleon that spontaneously undergoes change into a nucleon that is more stable; an unstable nucleon is said to be radioactive
radioisotope isotope that is unstable and undergoes conversion into a different, more stable isotope
strong nuclear force force of attraction between nucleons that holds a nucleus together
alpha particle (α or $$\ce{^4_2He}$$ or $$\ce{^4_2α}$$) high-energy helium nucleus; a helium atom that has lost two electrons and contains two protons and two neutrons
antimatter particles with the same mass but opposite properties (such as charge) of ordinary particles
beta particle ($$β$$ or $$\ce{^0_{-1}e}$$ or $$\ce{^0_{-1}β}$$) high-energy electron
gamma ray (γ or $$\ce{^0_0γ}$$) short wavelength, high-energy electromagnetic radiation that exhibits wave-particle duality
nuclear reaction change to a nucleus resulting in changes in the atomic number, mass number, or energy state
positron ($$\ce{^0_{+1}β}$$ or $$\ce{^0_{+1}e}$$) antiparticle to the electron; it has identical properties to an electron, except for having the opposite (positive) charge
alpha (α) decay loss of an alpha particle during radioactive decay
beta (β) decay breakdown of a neutron into a proton, which remains in the nucleus, and an electron, which is emitted as a beta particle
daughter nuclide nuclide produced by the radioactive decay of another nuclide; may be stable or may decay further
electron capture combination of a core electron with a proton to yield a neutron within the nucleus
gamma (γ) emission decay of an excited-state nuclide accompanied by emission of a gamma ray
half-life (t1/2) time required for half of the atoms in a radioactive sample to decay
parent nuclide unstable nuclide that changes spontaneously into another (daughter) nuclide
positron emission (also, β+ decay) conversion of a proton into a neutron, which remains in the nucleus, and a positron, which is emitted
radioactive decay spontaneous decay of an unstable nuclide into another nuclide
radioactive decay series chains of successive disintegrations (radioactive decays) that ultimately lead to a stable end-product
radiocarbon dating highly accurate means of dating objects 30,000–50,000 years old that were derived from once-living matter; achieved by calculating the ratio of $$\ce{^{14}_6C : ^{12}_6C}$$ in the object vs. the ratio of $$\ce{^{14}_6C : ^{12}_6C}$$ in the present-day atmosphere
radiometric dating use of radioisotopes and their properties to date the formation of objects such as archeological artifacts, formerly living organisms, or geological formations
chain reaction repeated fission caused when the neutrons released in fission bombard other atoms
containment system (also, shield) a three-part structure of materials that protects the exterior of a nuclear fission reactor and operating personnel from the high temperatures, pressures, and radiation levels inside the reactor
control rod material inserted into the fuel assembly that absorbs neutrons and can be raised or lowered to adjust the rate of a fission reaction
critical mass amount of fissionable material that will support a self-sustaining (nuclear fission) chain reaction
fissile (or fissionable) when a material is capable of sustaining a nuclear fission reaction
fission splitting of a heavier nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei, usually accompanied by the conversion of mass into large amounts of energy
fusion combination of very light nuclei into heavier nuclei, accompanied by the conversion of mass into large amounts of energy
fusion reactor nuclear reactor in which fusion reactions of light nuclei are controlled
nuclear fuel fissionable isotope present in sufficient quantities to provide a self-sustaining chain reaction in a nuclear reactor
nuclear moderator substance that slows neutrons to a speed low enough to cause fission
nuclear reactor environment that produces energy via nuclear fission in which the chain reaction is controlled and sustained without explosion
nuclear transmutation conversion of one nuclide into another nuclide
particle accelerator device that uses electric and magnetic fields to increase the kinetic energy of nuclei used in transmutation reactions
reactor coolant assembly used to carry the heat produced by fission in a reactor to an external boiler and turbine where it is transformed into electricity
subcritical mass amount of fissionable material that cannot sustain a chain reaction; less than a critical mass
supercritical mass amount of material in which there is an increasing rate of fission
transmutation reaction bombardment of one type of nuclei with other nuclei or neutrons
transuranium element element with an atomic number greater than 92; these elements do not occur in nature
chemotherapy similar to internal radiation therapy, but chemical rather than radioactive substances are introduced into the body to kill cancer cells
external beam radiation therapy radiation delivered by a machine outside the body
internal radiation therapy (also, brachytherapy) radiation from a radioactive substance introduced into the body to kill cancer cells
radiation therapy use of high-energy radiation to damage the DNA of cancer cells, which kills them or keeps them from dividing
radioactive tracer (also, radioactive label) radioisotope used to track or follow a substance by monitoring its radioactive emissions
becquerel (Bq) SI unit for rate of radioactive decay; 1 Bq = 1 disintegration/s
curie (Ci) larger unit for rate of radioactive decay frequently used in medicine; 1 Ci = 3.7 × 1010 disintegrations/s
Geiger counter instrument that detects and measures radiation via the ionization produced in a Geiger-Müller tube
gray (Gy) SI unit for measuring radiation dose; 1 Gy = 1 J absorbed/kg tissue
ionizing radiation radiation that can cause a molecule to lose an electron and form an ion
millicurie (mCi) larger unit for rate of radioactive decay frequently used in medicine; 1 Ci = 3.7 × 1010 disintegrations/s
nonionizing radiation radiation that speeds up the movement of atoms and molecules; it is equivalent to heating a sample, but is not energetic enough to cause the ionization of molecules
radiation absorbed dose (rad) SI unit for measuring radiation dose, frequently used in medical applications; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy
radiation dosimeter device that measures ionizing radiation and is used to determine personal radiation exposure
relative biological effectiveness (RBE) measure of the relative damage done by radiation
roentgen equivalent man (rem) unit for radiation damage, frequently used in medicine; 1 rem = 1 Sv
scintillation counter instrument that uses a scintillator—a material that emits light when excited by ionizing radiation—to detect and measure radiation
sievert (Sv) SI unit measuring tissue damage caused by radiation; takes into account energy and biological effects of radiation
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