This section is from the book "Practical Up-To-Date Plumbing", by George B. Clow. Also available from Amazon: Practical Up-To-Date Plumbing.

One heaped bushel of anthracite coal weighs from 75 to 80 lbs.

One heaped bushel of bituminous coal weighs from 70 to 75 lbs.

One bushel of coke weighs 32 lbs.

Water, gas and steam pipes are measured on the inside.

One cubic inch of water evaporated at atmospheric pressure makes 1 cubic foot of steam.

A heat unit known as a British Thermal Unit raises the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit.

For low pressure heating purposes, from 3 to 8 pounds of coal per hour is considered economical consumption, for each square foot of grate surface in a boiler, dependent upon conditions.

A horse power is estimated equal to 75 to 100 square feet of direct radiation. A horse power is also estimated as 15 square feet of heating surface in a standard tubular boiler.

Water boils in a vacuum at 98 degrees Fahrenheit.

A cubic foot of water weighs 62½ pounds, it contains 1,728 cubic inches or 7½ gallons. Water expands in boiling about one-twentieth of its bulk.

In turning into steam water expands 1,700 its bulk, approximately 1 cubic inch of water will produce 1 cubic foot of steam.

One pound of air contains 13.82 cubic feet.

It requires 1½ British Thermal Units to raise one cubic foot of air from zero to 70 degrees Fahrenheit.

At atmospheric pressure 966 heat units are required to evaporate one pound of water into steam.

A pound of anthracite coal contains 14,500 heat uits.

One horsepower is equivalent to 42.75 heat units per minute.

One horsepower is required to raise 33,000 pounds one foot high in one minute.

To produce one horsepower requires the evaporation of 2.66 pounds of water.

One ton of anthracite coal contains about 40 cubic feet.

One bushel of anthracite coal weighs about 86 pounds.

Heated air and water rise because their particles are more expanded, and therefore lighter than the colder particles.

A vacuum is a portion of space from which the air has been entirely exhausted.

Evaporation is the slow passage of a liquid into the form of vapor.

Increase of temperature, increased exposure of surface, and the passage Of air currents over the surface, cause increased evaporation.

Condensation is the passage of a vapor into the liquid state, and is the reverse of evaporation.

Pressure exerted upon a liquid is transmitted undiminished in all directions, and acts with the same force on all surfaces, and at right angles to those surfaces.

The pressure at each level of a liquid is proportional to its depth.

With different liquids and the same depth, pressure is proportional to the density of the liquid.

The pressure is the same at all points on any given level of a liquid.

The pressure of the upper layers of a body of liquid on the lower layers causes the latter to exert an equal reactive upward force. This force is called buoyancy.

Friction does not depend in the least on the pressure of the liquid upon the surface over which it is flowing. ,

Friction is proportional to the area of the surface.

At a low velocity friction increases with the velocity of the liquid.

Friction increases with the roughness of the surface.

Friction increases with the density of the liquid.

Friction is greater comparatively, in small pipes, for a greater proportion of the water comes in contact with the sides of the pipe than in the case of the large pipe. For this reason mains on heating apparatus should be generous in size.

Air is extremely compressible, while water is almost incompressible.

Water is composed of two parts of hydrogen, and one part of oxygen.

Water will absorb gases, and to the greatest extent when the pressure of the gas upon the water is greatest, and when the temperature is the lowest, for the elastic force of gas is then less.

Air is composed of about one-fifth oxygen and four-fifths nitrogen, with a small amount of carbonic acid gas.

To reduce Centigrade temperatures to Fahrenheit, multiply the Centigrade degrees by 9, divide the result by 5, and add 32.

To reduce Fahrenheit temperature to Centigrade, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit degrees, multiply by 5 and divide by 9.

To find the area of a required pipe, when the volume and velocity of the water are given, multiply the number of cubic feet of water by 144 and divide this amount by the velocity in feet per minute.

Water boils in an open vessel (atmospheric pressure at sea level) at 212 degrees Fahrenheit.

Water expands in heating from 39 to 212 degrees Fahrenheit, about 4 per cent.

Water expands about one-tenth its bulk by freezing solid.

Rule for finding the size of a pipe necessary to fill a number of smaller pipes. Suppose it is desired to fill from one pipe, a 2, 2½ and 4-inch pipe. Draw a right angle, one arm 2 inches in length, the other 2½ inches in length. From the extreme ends of the two arms draw a line. The length of this line in inches will give the size of pipe necessary to fill the two smaller pipes - about 3¼ inches. From one end of this last line, draw another line at right angles to it, 4 inches in length. Now, from the end of the 2-inch line to the end of the last line draw another line. Its length will represent the size of pipe necessary to fill a 2-, 2½ - and 4-inch pipe. This may be continued as long as desired.

Discharge of water. The amount of water discharged through a given orifice during a given length of time and under different heads, is as the square roots of the corresponding heights of the water in the reservoir above the surface of the orifice.

Water is at its greatest density and occupies the least space at 39 degrees Fahrenheit.

Water is the best known absorbent of heat, consequently a good vehicle for conveying and transmitting heat.

A U. S. gallon of water contains 231 cubic inches and weighs 8 1/3 pounds.

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