Edible fats and oils are obtained from both animal and vegetable sources. Animal sources include: Beef, Pork, Sheep, and Fish. In North America, the ﬁrst two are the prime sources. Vegetable sources include canola, coconut, corn, cotton, olive, palm fruit and palm kernel, peanut, soya bean, saﬄower, and sunﬂower.
Reﬁning of Fats and Oils
The major steps in reﬁning fats and oils are as follows:
- Free fatty acids are neutralized and treated with an alkali.
- Color is removed.
- The fat is hydrogenated.
- The fat is deodorized.
- The fat is chilled and beaten to make it softer and whiter. This is done by a votator (a machine that cools and kneads liquid margarine).
- Fat is stored to facilitate the correct crystallization (tempering).
Contributors and Attributions
Sorangel Rodriguez-Velazquez (American University). Chemistry of Cooking by Sorangel Rodriguez-Velazquez is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted