# Introduction to Analytical Chemistry (Fry-Petit)

Analytical chemistry is the science of how to properly design and perform experiments chemistry. We learn to compare and contrast different measurement techniques, learn how to know if our measurements are reliable, and learn how to address error in our experiments. Furthermore, we will lay the ground work for some experimental techniques that undergird much of chemistry, biology, and physics. The skills and techniques learned in this class can set one up to be competitive in science industries and prepare them to be competent researchers.

Objectives for Introduction to Analytical Chemistry

By the end of this students should be able to:

1. Outline and explain the scientific process and the analytic process.
2. Perform conversions between units and explain calculations of chemical concentrations.
3. Prepare a standard operating procedure for the preparation of a solution using proper glassware and techniques.

Reading: Chapter 0 (all sections), Chapter 1 (sections 1-4), Exploring Chemical Analysis 5th ed., D. Harris

1. As a group create an outline of the scientific method.

STOP

The analytical process is a specific application of the scientific method that focuses on quantitative measurements. It has 7 steps:

Step name/description/example

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Many of the calculations that you will perform in quantitative analysis build off of problems that you learned to solve in general chemistry. You and your group will be assigned specific problems and will present them when time is up. Once you finish your problem be sure to work on the other problems and any you do not finish in class needs to be done at home.

Calculation Review

$\mathrm{weight\: \% = \dfrac{mass\: solute}{mass\: total\: mixture\: or\: solution}\times 100}\nonumber$

$\mathrm{vol\: \% = \dfrac{volume\: solute}{volume\: total\: solution}\times 100}\nonumber$

$\mathrm{ppm = \dfrac{mass\: substance}{mass\: sample}\times 10^6}\nonumber$

$\mathrm{ppb = \dfrac{mass\: substance}{mass\: sample}\times 10^9}\nonumber$

$\mathrm{M_1V_1 = M_2V_2}\nonumber$

1. Use appropriate metric prefixes to write the following measurements without use of exponents (it is okay to use the internet on your phone or book pg 15 for help)
 4.7×10-6 g 1.85×10-12 m 16.7 ×106 s 15.7×103 g 1.34×10-3 m 1.84×102 cm
1. The density of titanium metal is 4.51g/cm3 at 25 °C. What mass of titanium displaces 125.0 mL of water at 25 °C?

1. An individual suffering from a high cholesterol level in her blood has 242 mg of cholesterol per 100 mL of blood. If the total blood volume of the individual is 5.2 L, how many grams of total blood cholesterol does the individual’s body contain?

1. How many mL of concentrated (17.6 M) sulfuric acid are necessary to make 100.00 mL of a 1.00 M sulfuric acid solution?

1. What is the concentration in ppm of Cu2+ in a 3 x 10-4 M in the aqueous CuSO4 solution?

1. What is the concentration in ppb of lead in a groundwater solution containing 3 x 10-8 M Pb2+?

1. 25 µL of ethanol is added to a 1000 µL mixture of methanol and propanol. What is the volume percent of ethanol in the mixture?

1. Seawater contains 411 ppm calcium (Ca2+). What is the molar concentration (i.e., molarity) of calcium in seawater?

STOP

1. Harris 1-19: This problem is from your book and is an example of the types of problems given both in the book, on exams, and more over in real life. Therefore, it is very important that you start practicing pulling out the important information now. This also highlights the importance of doing all of your homework for this class!

I have always enjoyed tuna fish. Unfortunately, a study of the mercury content of canned tuna in 2010 found that chunk white tuna contains 0.6 ppm Hg and chunk light tuna contains 0.14 ppm. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends no more than 0.1 μg Hg/kg body weight per day. I weigh 68 kg. How often can I eat a can containing 6 ounces (1 lb=16 oz) of chunk white tuna so that I do not average more than 0.1 μg Hg/kg body weight per day? If I switch to chunk light tuna, how often may I eat one can?

STOP